AARG sees the aerial perspective as integral to the pursuit of key questions in archaeology and heritage, including landscape character, long term landscape change, human ecodynamics, and the experience of place. We are a community of heritage professionals, researchers, students and independent scholars dedicated to education, research and outreach initiatives involving the acquisition and application of data from airborne and spaceborne platforms. AARG provides opportunities for networking, mentorship, and exchanges of ideas on theories, methods and technologies related to aerial archaeology. The organization supports an annual conference, workshops, training schools, and publications.

Membership is open to all who have an interest or practical involvement in aerial archaeology, remote sensing and landscape studies.

 AARG is a registered charity: number SC 023162


The Aerial Archaeology Research Group (AARG) began life in 1983 after some earlier seminars called to discuss ideas raised by Paul Ashbee (then of the University of East Anglia) and David Wilson (of CUCAP). (See AARGnews 28 and 47).

The critical issue was to examine ways of obtaining archaeological information from existing aerial photographs – problems that now tend to fall within ‘post-reconnaissance’ work. Meetings of that group then continued to be held at least once a year – and those were exciting times.

Computer rectification had become available and allowed, for the first time, rapid mapping of complex features and large areas. This was used by a small number of research students to study different areas of Britain, and many of the early AARG meetings were spent discussing ways of illustrating different kinds of features (see Aerial Archaeology 11) and of methods of classification of the mapped features and their results. The latter is a never-ending quest and recurs at intervals and as new areas (each of which has its own specific problems) are studied or new methods applied (see, for example, papers by Duncan and Redfern in AARGnews 14). More recently we have examined ways of using machine intelligence to find and classify archaeological information (for example, De Laet and Lambers; Trier et al in AARGnews 39) and to assist some of the technical problems of image manipulation (e.g., Verhoeven et al; Cantoro in AARGnews 44; Vletter in AARGnews 50)

Present day annual AARG meetings have become slightly more formal presentations of finished, or ongoing, projects, although we have introduced sessions which have more open discussions. Presentations have included some of the results from the National Mapping Programme for England (HE), and integration of different survey methods (such as comparing results from AP interpretation with geophysics, or adding field-walked data to AP-derived maps). Use of satellite images was initially pursued as the special interest of one member but, with the increasing resolution now publicly available, this media is becoming a useful source of archaeological information (see Fowler in AARGnews 9-15, Comfort in AARGnews 14; Danelli in AARGnews 54).
As AARG enlarged in size, so it attracted aerial photographers as members and topics have arisen which pursue their interests. The merits of different types of hardware (cameras, films, filters, etc) have been discussed (see Crawshaw AARGnews 8-10; Jones in AARGnews 16) and our early meetings included an informal session at which members showed a selection of their latest photographs. Current interest, raised as an important post-reconnaissance question, asks whether the traditional archaeological oblique photographs provide reliable data on which to base archaeological survey. This continues to form part of discussions at the annual conferences.

Our meetings also include displays and discussions about new technology. Since 2000, we have observed the ways in which Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) can help answer archaeological problems and can produce three-dimensional images of features and landscapes that are covered by woodland. ALS has revolutionized the way archaeologists can see and understand topography in many previously-hidden parts of the world (see Occasional Publication No. 5).  More recent additions to aerial methods have been smaller scale – the use of drones (unmanned aerial vehicles) and the accompanying Structure from Motion methods that allow us to recreate three-dimensional views from a series of overlapping photographs. 

Extending into Eastern Europe

Dropping of flying restrictions in eastern Europe, let us welcome many members from ex-soviet bloc countries and AARG has played a prominent role in helping to establish programmes of flying and recording. A conference was held at Kleinmachnow, Berlin in 1994 and was followed in 1996 by a training week in Hungary. That week provided airborne experience for more than 20 ‘students’ who were also introduced to the basics of photo interpretation, mapping and analysis of those results. Since 1996 AARG, assisted by various EU grants, has helped run more than 25 training schools and workshops in Europe, plus others in Near Eastern countries.

AARG has a small, but increasing, number of members from, or working in, other parts of the world and AARGnews has included summaries of work in Israel, Turkey, Jordan, Armenia, Egypt, Afghanistan, and New Zealand as well as updates from work in ‘new’ countries in Europe such as Croatia and Serbia.

Current AARG Committee Members

Chair: Sara Popovic (Juraj Dobrila University of Pula) – E-Mail
Vice-Chair: Steve Davis (University College Dublin) – E-Mail
Honorary Secretary: Lidia Żuk (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan) – E -Mail
Meeting Secretary: Dr. Ole Risbøl (Department of Archaeology and Cultural History – NTNU University Museum) – E-Mail
Treasurer: Rebecca Bennett (Archaeologist at PTS Consultancy) – E-Mail
Editor, AARGnews: Rog Palmer (Air Photo Services) – E-Mail
Webmaster: Agnes Schneider (Philipps-University Marburg) – E-Mail


The Membership of AARG is open to individuals (15 Pound/ 17 Euro) , institutions (25 Pound/ 29 Euro) and special rate applies for students (10 Pound/ 12 Euro).

Advantages: Members are kept informed via email of the annual conference, publication of new issues of AARGnews and occasional papers, as well as the occasional day schools which are arranged for the discussion of specialized topics.

If you join for the first time please fill in the registration form! NOTE: After registering you must pay the membership fee, only then is your registration complete. 


Membership Information

AARG members benefit from reduced conference fees and immediate access to the latest issues of AARGnews sent by email. Membership runs from January until December, each year.

Renewed memberships need to be paid in full before the end of February. Members from the UK are invited to make a standing order payment (forms on request) with payment on 1st of January.

Any person joining after September will subscribe automatically for the following year unless they request immediate membership. If attending the conference, members who still prefer cash payment will be encouraged to pay their subscriptions for the following year. This will help our administration enormously.

New members are requested to submit forms via email or send a print-out (ideally) in the post. Handwritten forms will be accepted only when legible (it is difficult trying to decipher unclear handwriting and may cause incorrect details to be entered in the database). The country of provenance must always be stated when filling in forms.

It is the responsibility of members to notify the AARG Hon Sec of changes of postal address. Most importantly, members should notify the AARG Hon Sec of changes of email address. Old or incorrect email addresses will be deleted from the membership list when sent messages bounce back as “permanent error, the message could not be delivered to the recipient“.

Becoming a Member or renewing Your Membership

Your membership will be prolonged when the membership fee is received in full. You can choose from three possibilities:

Direct Payment from your Bank to AARG
Important: please contact AARG Secretary (aarg.secretary@gmail.com) and you will be provided with AARG bank account details. When paying by bank transfer, please ensure your name and reason for payment is clearly displayed.

Standing Order
Important: please contact AARG Secretary (aarg.secretary@gmail.com) and you will be provided with AARG bank account details. When paying by bank transfer, please ensure your name and reason for payment is clearly displayed.

You can make your PayPal payment by clicking the fitting button below. Please choose the correct amount according to your status (individual, institutional, special rate).

Forthcoming AARG Event


The AARG committee proposes to have short online meetings on Fridays: September 3rd, 17th and this extended call for papers is to invite abstracts for 15-20 minute talks that may fit the following session themes.

1. Open call

Presentations which can encompass a wide range of archaeological questions and different research approaches. This is sort of an open call after which all accepted proposals will be grouped by theme.

2. Technical session

We invite proposals that show how new technical developments have assisted solving archaeological questions. Or those that have gone wrong or seem unlikely to produce a useful solution.

3. Discussion sessions

A. Special time calls for modified research approach?
We invite short 10-minute presentations on how covid has affected your research. Have you been able to do aerial reconnaissance has was your research been more focused on interpretation of historical APs, ALS data or satellite imagery?

B. Talk to a colleague!
This session is open to all who would like to discuss a certain topic with a group. You are invited to prepare a short 5-minute presentation with your idea as a conversation starter.

Young/starting researchers are also encouraged to participate if they would like to discuss their research ideas, get ‘a second opinion’ on data interpretation or would benefit from the help of more experienced members.

Proposals (up to 300 words) are to be sent to aargchair@gmail.com by 15 June 2021.

The conference fee will be a symbolic 10 euros per day which can amount to staggering 30 euros if you attend all 3 days.

AARG 2020 Trondheim, Norway
9-12th September 2020


AARG Annual Meetings (1983 - )

A technical notice: a detailed lineup of all past AARG meetings with CfPs, Programme, Abstracts and images is coming soon!

AARG 2019 Constanța 11TH-14th September 2019

AARG 2018 Venice, 11th - 14th September, 2018

See the programme & schedule here!

AARG 2017 Pula, 13th - 15th September, 2017

AARG 2016 Pilsen, 7th - 9th September, 2016

AARG 2015 Santiago de Compostela, 9th - 12th September, 2015

AARG 2014 Dublin, 24th - 26th September, 2014

AARG 2013 Amersfoort, 26th - 28th September, 2013

AARG 2012 Budapest, 13th - 16th September, 2012

AARG 2011 Poznan, 21th - 25th September, 2011

AARG 2010 Bucharest, 15th - 19th September, 2010

AARG 2009 Siena, 25th - 28th September, 2009

AARG 2008 Ljubljana, 08th - 12th September, 2008

AARG 2007 Copenhagen, 25th - 27th September, 2007

AARG 2006 Bath, 11th - 13th September, 2006

AARG 2005 Leuven, 19th - 22th September, 2005

AARG 2004 Munich, 5th - 9th September, 2004

AARG 2003 Winchester, 2th - 5th September, 2003

AARG 2002 Canterbury, 10th - 13th September, 2002

AARG 2001 Vienna, 19th - 24th September, 2001

AARG 2000 Aberdeen, 5th - 8th September, 2000

AARG 1999 Bournemouth, 13th - 15th September, 1999

AARG 1998 York, 10th - 12th September, 1998

AARG 1997 Edinburgh, 17th - 20th September, 1997

AARG 1996 Chester, 18th - 20th September, 1996

AARG 1995 Lincoln, 20th - 22th September, 1995

AARG 1994 St. Ives, 19th - 20th September, 1994

AARG 1993 Abergavenny, 20th - 21th September, 1993

AARG 1992 Dublin, 17th - 19th September, 1992

AARG 1991 Glasgow, 24th - 25th September, 1991

AARG 1990 York, 25th - 26th September, 1990

AARG 1989 Bradford, 26th - 27th September, 1989

AARG 1988 Bristol, 28th - 29th September, 1988

AARG 1986 Cambridge, 22th - 23th September, 1986

AARG 1985/2 Cambridge, 9th - 10th September, 1985

AARG 1985/1 Cambridge, 7th - 8th January, 1986

AARG 1984 Cambridge, 26th - 28th March, 1984

AARG 1983 Cambridge, 5th - 6th September, 1983

Previous Workshops (1994-2014)

Historic Maps and Imagery for Modern Scientific Applications

International Summer School in Archaeology

Workshop Hull

Aerial Archaeology, Computer Visualisation And Past Landscapes

International Workshop on Air Photo Interpretation - August 6-12 2007

Aerial Archaeological Training Week Poland 1998

Grants and Scholarships

AARG Student Scholarship

AARG has a limited number of student scholarships for attendance at its annual conference. These are aimed at supporting bona fide students who are interested in aerial archaeology and who wish to attend.

Anyone wishing to apply should write to the AARG’s Chairman (aargchair@gmail.com) with information about their interests in archaeology and aerial archaeology, as well as their place of study. The annual closing date for applications to the annual AARG conference is 31 May, other meetings for which scholarships may be available will be advertised on an ad hoc basis.

AARG Project Grants

 AARG provides up to £1000 annually in support of outreach, training and publication projects of interest to the aerial archaeology community. Proposals should be submitted by the 1 August for projects in the Autumnl/Winter or 1 February for projects in the Spring/Summer.

To apply please write to the AARG’s Chairman (aargchair@gmail.com) with a brief (1-2 page) summary of the proposed project, including an outline of the planned activities and the relevance of the project to AARG, and an estimated budget. Student applicants should also submit a letter of support from their supervisor.

Derrick Riley Fund Grants

The Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield has established a Derrick Riley Grant in 1994 to foster and support the study of aerial archaeology by young scholars.

A maximum of £500 will be available for students for independent research.

More information can be found at http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/archaeology/derrick-riley-fund.


In August 2015, ISAP announced establishment of a fund to provide support of up to £1000 to assist with members’ projects that ‘further the objectives of the Society’. Information and the application form are available from the ISAP website.

Welcome to our Publications!

Here you can find all AARGnews issues and also a searchable Index for all  papers published within AARGnews and reach any Issue without too much scrolling! Further on you can find the Occasional Publications !



AARGnews is the bi-annual newsletter of the Aerial Archaeology Research Group. Containing editorials, news items, summary notes and longer descriptive or research articles, AARGnews remains a diverse, up-to-date and above all, open forum for discussion and exchange of new (and old) ideas.
Well illustrated with photographs, maps and plans, recent papers have covered aerial photography, air photo interpretation and mapping, historic aviators and their work, the methodology and progress of national remote sensing programmes, satellite imagery, book reviews and useful excerpts from the World Wide Web.

Download the contents of all issues as an EXCEL document!

Choose the contents and pdf-documents of any individual issue:

Copyright © Copyright  in AARGnews rests with the individual authors.
AARGnews is published twice per year and is circulated to all AARG members. Since issue 35 (September 2007) it has been prepared and circulated in pdf format and some years earlier, the Committee agreed that past issues of AARGnews could be converted to pdf files and placed on the web site for free access. We are grateful to Lidka Zuk from the University of Poznan in Poland for scanning the first 20 issues and converting them into PDF files.

AARGnews 62 (2021,1)

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Editorial by Rog Palmer 2
Chair’s piece: by Sara Popović
AARG 2021: Strange times – strange call for papers 7
AARG notices:
AARG’s news and information in other formats
Derrick Riley Bursary 
ISAP Fund 
Information for contributors 8
AARG’s Sentinel 2 working group – background and first report by Rog Palmer 9
Drone archaeology as an amateur by Julian Ravest 11
GeoNadir: mobilising Mother Earth’s paparazzi
by Karen Joyce 24
Wazzat? Number 3 by Rog Palmer 26
Aerial archaeological time window in 2020:
12 days in June. Report from Hungary
by Zoltán Czajlik 27
Aerial Archaeology in Oman 2018 and 2019
by Robert Bewley and Sufyan Al Karameh 38
Aerial images and instant gratification (figure 1)
by Rog Palmer 51
Cropmarks 53

Books and papers of interest? 55
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 70

AARGnews 61 (2020,2)

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Editorial by Rog Palmer 3
Chair’s piece: by Sara Popović 8
AARG notices:
AARG’s news and information in other formats
Derrick Riley Bursary 
ISAP Fund 
Information for contributors 11
Detection of crop mark contrast for archaeological surveys
by Froelich G. Rainey, John N. Hampton and Bruce W. Bevan 12
Small window of opportunity in the Upper Thames Valley 2020 by Robert Bewley 26
Aerial research in Nord Isère (France – Rhône Alpes region) Panossas “les buissières”
by Alain Bliez 32
To fly or not to fly – that is the question? by Moira Greig 38
Over Danube meadow with a UAV by Ovidiu Frujină, Cornelis Stal and Catalin Lazar 41
Traces of 17th/18th century fortifications in the terrain by Roland Linck 47
Thermal and Multispectral Monitoring of cropmarks by UAV by Simon Seyfried 52
Cropmarks 56

Books and papers of interest? 60
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 76

AARGnews 60 (2020,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairpiece: by Steve Davis 6
Meet the Trustees: Chris Cox, Darja Grosman, Włodzimierz Rączkowski 8
AARG 2020 10
AARG notices:
AARG’s news and information in other formats
Derrick Riley Bursary 
ISAP Fund 
Information for contributors 11
Search for a B-25H-5 of the 418 Night Fighter Squadron USAAF 5th Air Force in New Guinea (West Papua) by Bas Kreuger 12
Beech bark disease and ancient fields in Marden Forest, West Sussex, UK by Rog Palmer 19
The benefit of continuous aerial archaeology flights over decades in Bavaria by Dr. Roland Linck, Stefan Kluthe and Klaus Leidorf 21
Computational approaches to archaeological site detection and monitoring: a brief review of a workshop held in Cambridge, 29 February 2020 by Rog Palmer 25
Working round the Covid-19 lockdown and (mainly UK) archive access by Dave Cowley, Helen Winton, Toby Driver and Martin Gojda – collated by Rog Palmer 27
Air Photo Services in the Time of Covid-19 by Chris Cox 30
Covid-19 diversions 41
Cropmarks 42

Books and papers of interest? 44
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 57

AARGnews 59 (2019,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairpiece: by Steve Davis 6
AARG notices:
Derrick Riley Bursary 
ISAP Fund 
Information for contributors 8
Mapping a post-WW2 Prisoner-of-War camp in Bavaria through aerial photography by Roland Linck and Sarah Abandowitz 9
Resolving some spatial resolution issues – Part 2: When diffraction takes over by Geert Verhoeven
AARG Converstation No 4(2): Darja Grosman and Rog Palmer : 17 September 2018 24
Cropmarks 39
Luftfotoarkæologi 2 (Aerial archaeology 2), a new book from Denmark by Lis Helles Olesen 40

Books and papers of interest? 41
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 48
A selection of posters posters from AARG 2019: 49-
Chiara Botturi. Lidar imagery for the understanding and protection of historical landscapes in Northern Ireland
F. Cigna and D. Tapete. Documenting natural and anthropogenic hazards at the Nasca Lines
UNESCO World Heritage site in Peru using satellite SAR
Loren V. Cowin. Mapping Medieval Merv
Zoltán Czajlik. László Rupnik and András Bödőcs. From the archive to the RPAS based 3D photogrammetry. The investigation of an Early Iron Age site-complex in Süttő (Hungary)
Martin Gojda, Ondřej Gojda, Ondřej Baier and Markéta Augustýnová. GIS-based mapping programme of Bohemian archaeological landscape heritage from aerial photographs
D. Tapete and F. Cigna. Observations with COSMO-SkyMed SAR in support of detection of archaeological sites and monitoring of cultural heritage in ordinary times and crisis

AARGnews 58 (2019,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairpiece: by Steve Davis 6
AARG Conference 2019 – venue, dates and call for papers 8
AARG’s new website: https://a-a-r-g.eu by Agnes Schneider 10
AARG notices 11
Derrick Riley Bursary 
ISAP Fund 
Information for contributors
Cultural landscape as palimpsest revisited by Mikołaj Kostyrko, Grzegorz Kiarszys 12
LiDAR for Italian archaeology. High-resolution elevation data to enrich our understanding of the defensive circuits of a protohistoric site in Southern Italy by Jitte Waagen 15
AARG Converstation No 4(1): Darja Grosman and Rog Palmer : 12 September 2018 26
Searching for remains of the Great War – prisoner war camps in Poland in perspective of aerial prospection by Mikołaj Kostyrko and Dawid Kobiałka 33
Drones + images = archives? by Rog Palmer 44
Cropmarks 47
Reviewnote: Tom Condit, Mark Keegan and many others. Aerial investigation and mapping of the Newgrange Landscape, Brú na Bóinne, Co. Meath: The Archaeology of the Brú na Bóinne World Heritage Site Interim Report, December 2018. by Rog Palmer 50
Books and papers of interest? 51
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 59
More posters from AARG 2018: 60-
Felice Pericante, Lanscape archaeology: the Swedich Geodatabase example of multistratified monitoring
Felice Pericante, The threat of invasive agriculture on the ancient landscape: Ager Picentinus

AARGnews 57 (2018,2)

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Editorial 3
Heatwave reveals ancient trading centre by Zoom Rockman 6
Chairpiece: by Steve Davis 7
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary / ISAP Fund / Information for contributors 9
Aerial archaeology in Denmark summer 2018 by Lis Helles Olesen 10
Historic England Flying Summer 2018 by Damian Grady 13
The Netherlands by Willy Metz (in collaboration with drs. Rob de Vrind) 16
UAV investigations of a Pictish cemetery at Tarradale, Ross-shire, Scotland by Andy Hickie 21
Notes about ‘Britain by Drone: Heatwave Special’ by Rog Palmer 24
Resolving some spatial resolution issues – Part 1: Between line pairs and sampling distance by Geert Verhoeven 26
Cropmarks 36
Books and papers of interest? 39
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 45
A selection of posters from AARG 2018 46-
Zuzanna Kowalczyk and Martyna Andrzejak, The crop circle mystery: Another case study of a pitfall in the air photographs interpretation.
Valeria Volpe, A centuriatio seen from above: airphotography, field surveys and archival research for detecting past landscape systems in the territory of Vibinum (Bovino, Foggia).

AARGnews 56 (2018,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairpiece: by Steve Davis 7
Preliminary notice: AARG 2018, Venice 9
Student/young researchers’ scholarships for AARG 2018 10
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary / ISAP Fund / Information for contributors 11
UAVs in Context: Archaeological Airborne Recording in a National Body of Survey and Record by David C. Cowley, Charles Moriarty, George Geddes, Georgina L. Brown, Tom Wade and Caroline J. Nichol. 12
Pixels – So basic but so confusing by Geert Verhoeven 28
Sentinel‐2 tools to improve field survey planning: Methods and first experiences by Jesús García Sánchez and Cristina Charro Lobato 34
Cropmarks 42
Books and papers of interest? 44
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 47

AARGnews 55 (2017,2)

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Editorial 3
Outgoing Chairpiece: by Rachel Opitz 7
Incoming Chairpiece: by Steve Davis 8
Preliminary notice: AARG 2018, Venice 10
Student/young researchers’ scholarships for AARG 2018 10
AARG notices: 
Derrick Riley Bursary/ISAP Fund/ Information for contributors 11
Geert’s aerial pixel corner by Geert Verhoeven 12
The reflection of two fields – electromagnetic radiation and its role in (aerial) imaging by Geert Verhoeven 13
Developing an approach to national mapping – preliminary work on Scotland in miniature by Dave Cowley and Adara López-López 19
Cropmarks 26
Books and papers of interest? 29
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 34
A selection of posters from AARG 2017 35-
Manuel Fernández‐Götz, Felix Teichner, and Christoph Salzmann. Digital Elevation Modelling and Geophysical Surveys at the Roman Camps of Ardoch (Scotland)
Vasiliki Lysandrou and Athos Agapiou. An aerial investigation of the eastern necropolis of Nea Paphos, Cyprus
Stefania Michalopoulou. The Role of Agriculture and Pastoralism for the Cultural Formation of the Mountainous Landscape of Siteia Area, Crete (Greece): a view from the sky
Charles Moriarty. Deploying multispectral remote sensing for multitemporal analysis of archaeological crop stress at Ravenshall, Fife, Scotland
Gerald Raab and Ronny Weßling. The Iron Age hillfort settlement of Vix – Comparing historical DEMs
Manuel Fernández‐Götz, Jesús García Sánchez, José Costa García, Joao Fonte and Felix Teichner. Aerial Archaeology at Sasamón (Burgos, Spain): Iron Age Hillfort and Roman Camps
Agnes Schneider. A semi‐automatic workflow for the supervised detection of anthropogenic objects in archaeological analysis using GIS APIs and R
CHERISH series:
1 Introduction and objectives
2 Corns, A., et. al. Aerial archaeology: core to the CHERISH project
3 Corns, A., Devlin, G. and Shaw, R. Monitoring heritage in the coastal zone case study: Skellig Michael, Ireland
Lenka Starková, Karel Nováček, and Miroslav Melčák. Interactive map of the historical heritage of Mosul
Máté Szabó. Revealing invisible crop marks by DSM relief‐visualisation

AARGnews 54 (2017,1)

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Editorial 4
AARG Chairpiece: March 2017 by Rachel Opitz 7
Student/young researchers’ scholarships for AARG 2017 8
AARG 2017: First call for papers 9
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary 10
Fantastic Images (and where to find them) by Davide Danelli 11
Palimpsests of medieval landscapes. A case study from Lower Silesia Region, Poland by Grzegorz Kiarszys 21
Cropmarks 37
Books of interest? 40
Maurizio Forte and Stefano Campana (eds), 2016. Digital Methods and Remote Sensing in Archaeology.
Allan S Gilbert (ed), 2017. Encylopedia of Geoarchaeology.
J Henry Fair, 2016. Industrial Scars: The Hidden Costs of Consumption.
Máté Szabó, 2016. Aerial archaeological work in Hungary in 2011.
Gianluca Cantoro, Jeremia Pelgrom and Tesse D. Stek, 2016. Reading a difficult landscape from the air. A methodological case-study from a WWII airfield in South Italy.
Łukasz Banaszek, 2015. Przeszłe krajobrazy w chmurze punktów (Past landscapes in the point cloud).
Federica Boschi, 2016. Non-destructive field evaluation in Preventive Archaeology. Looking at the current situation in Europe.
Francesco Benassi, et al, 2017. Testing Accuracy and Repeatability of UAV Blocks Oriented with GNSS-Supported Aerial Triangulation.
Christopher Stewart , 2017. Detection of Archaeological Residues in Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar.
Free downloads: Council for British Archaeology, RCHME inventories, Dave Cowley publicationsPapers of interest? As yet unread 44

AARGnews 53 (2016,2)

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Editorial 4
AARG Chair Piece: September 2016 by Rachel Opitz 7
Student/young researchers’ scholarships for AARG 2016 9
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary/ISAP Fund/Information for contributors 10
Finding common ground: human and computer vision in archaeological prospection by Arianna Traviglia, Dave Cowley and Karsten Lambers 11
Automated detection in remote sensing archaeology: a reading list by Karsten Lambers and Arianna Traviglia 25
The archaeological potential of declassified HEXAGON KH‐9 panoramic camera satellite photographs by Martin J. F Fowler 30
Hillshades and High Drama by Rebecca Bennett 37
Cropmarks 40
“A set of old wives’ tales”: When Nadar was a photographer. Review article by Martyn Barber 43
Recovering lost landscapes. Review article by Ioana Oltean 47
Books of interest? 49
Efstratios Stylianidis and Fabio Remondino (ed), 2016. 3D Recording, Documentation and Management of Cultural Heritage.
Birger Stichelbaut and David Cowley (ed), 2016. Conflict Landscapes and Archaeology from Above.
Dimitris Kaimaris and Petros Patias, 2015. Systematic observation of the change of marks of known buried archaeological structures: case study in the Plain of Philippi, Eastern Macedonia, Greece.
W. Ostrowski and K. Hanus, 2016. Budget UAV systems for the prospection of small and medium‐scale archaeological sites.
Evans, D., Airborne laser scanning as a method for exploring long‐term socio‐ecological dynamics in Cambodia.
Archaeological Prospection 2016: list of ‘aerial’ papers
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 52

AARGnews 52 (2016,1)

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Frontispiece – Air Photographs Unit, 50th anniversary
Editorial 3
Chair(man)’s Piece by Rachel Opitz 8
Student/young researchers’ scholarships for AARG 2016 9
AARG 2016: Pilsen. First call for papers 10
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary / ISAP Fund Information for contributors / Spanish Section 11
Aerial Archaeology in Spain: out of the closet? by César Parcero-Oubiña 12
Interpreting social change from above: causewayed enclosures of Northern Spanish Plateau by Marcos García García 14
A view from the far west of Europe: Aerial Archaeology at the Merida Institute of Archaeology by Victorino Mayoral Herrera 24
Aerial survey of the Ager Segisamonensis: a Roman landscape revisited (Sasamón, Spain) by Jesús García Sánchez 34
Roman military settlements in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The contribution of historical and modern aerial photography, satellite imagery and airborne LiDAR by José Manuel Costa García, João Fonte, Andrés Menéndez Blanco, David González Álvarez, Manuel Gago Mariño, Rebeca Blanco‐Rotea and Valentín Álvarez Martínez 43
Invisible medieval villages: Aerial Research in Alava (Basque Country, Spain) by François Didierjean and Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo 52
Remote Sensing within Swedish Archaeology by Daniel Langhammer 60
An archaeological flight further than post‐processualism – seeking a non‐anthropocentric perspective by Mikołaj Kostyrko, Kornelia Kajda, Dawid Kobiałka and Dimitrij Mlekuž 71
Making hidden components of past landscapes interpretable: from air photos to structured records by Martin Gojda and Lucie Čulíková 80
A KH-9 satellite photograph of Soviet‐era landscape graffiti by Martin J F Fowler 87
Cropmarks 90
Review articles:
Toby Driver: Understanding Roman Frontiers, A Celebration for Professor Bill Hanson. Edited by David J. Breeze, Rebecca H. Jones and Ioana A. Oltean 92
Rog Palmer: Detecting and Understanding Historic Landscapes. Edited by Alexandra Chavarría Arnau and Andrew Reynolds 94
Books of interest? 97
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student scholarships 99

AARGnews 51 (2015,2)

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Frontispiece – ArcLand exhibition poster, Ljubljana 3
Editorial 4
Chair(man)’s Piece by Rachel Opitz 8
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary/ISAP Fund/Information for contributors 10
AARG’s Flying Circus by Rog Palmer 11
Location of hillfort culture settlements by means of aerial archaeology in the municipality of Carral, Galicia by Pablo Fernández Ans, Marta Molina Huelva, Ángela Barrios Padura 14
A story about one shot from three thousand five hundred by Eugen S. Teodor, Carmen C. Bem, Dan Ştefan 25
Crawford in 3‐D: the stereoscope in early aerial archaeology by Martyn Barber 32
Flying review 2015 by Various Authors 48
Book notice: Luftfotoarkæologi i Danmark (Aerial Archaeology in Denmark) by Lis Helles Olesen and Esben Schlosser Mauritsen 51
Cropmarks 52
Books of interest? 55
Michael Doneus, et al, 2015. Airborne laser bathymetry for documentation of submerged archaeological sites in shallow water.
Miguel A. Bernabé‐Poveda et al, 2011. Techniques for highlighting relief on orthoimagery.
Rosa Lasaponara et al (ed), 2013. Earth observation: a window on the past. Proceedings of the 4th EARSeL Workshop
Axel G. Posluschny (ed), 2015. Sensing the Past: Contributions from the ArcLand Conference on Remote Sensing for Archaeology.
A. Chavarria & A. Reynolds (ed) 2015. Detecting and Understanding Historical Landscapes
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 57

AARGnews 50 (2015,1)

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Editorial 3
Chair(man)’s Piece by Rachel Opitz 6
AARG 2015, Santiago de Compostela. First call for papers and scholarship information 8
Assessing Archive Stereo-Aerial Photographs for Reconstructing Archaeological Earthworks by Heather Papworth, Andy Ford, Kate Welham & David Thackray 10
Exploiting the Obsession of Detail: the Benefits of Developing Aerial Archaeology by Olivia Mavrinac 23
A workflow for (Semi) automatic extraction of roads and paths in forested areas from Airborne Laser Scan data by Willem. F. Vletter 33
Seeing, thinking, walking: a report on the LiDAR visualization and interpretation workshop 2014, Esslingen, Germany by Mikolaj Kostyrko 41
Notes on “Sensing the Past – New Approaches to European Landscapes” by Rachel Opitz 44
ArchaeoLandscapes International – coming soon! by Dave Cowley, Rachel Opitz, Axel Posluschny and Armin Schmidt 46
Santiago Tales from your Committee 49
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary & Information for contributors 51
Cropmarks 52
Books of interest? 56
Eric Schmidt, 1940. Flights over Ancient Iran Archaeological monographs from English Heritage
N. Gilmour, S. Horlock, R. Mortimer and S. Tremlett, 2014. Middle Bronze Age enclosures in the Norfolk Broads: a case study at Ormesby St Michael, England
Z. Czajlik, S. Berecki and L. Rupnik, 2014. Aerial Geoarchaeological Survey in the Valleys of the Mures and Aries Rivers (2009-2013)
S. Berecki, Z. Czajlik and Z. Soós, (eds.), 2012. Historical landscapes. Aerial Photographs of Transylvanian Archaeological Sites and Monuments, Catalogi Mvsei Marisiensis, Seria Archaeologica I.
Archaeological Data Service, 2014. Guides for using Drones
R. Qin, A. Gruen and C.S. Fraser, 2014. Quality Assessment of Image Matchers for DSM Generation – A Comparative Study Based on UAV Images
G. Verhoeven, W. Karel, S. Štuhec, M. Doneus, I. Trinks and N. Pfeifer, 2015. Mind your grey tones – examining the influence of decolourization methods on interest point extraction and matching for architectural image-based modelling 
C.H. Roosevelt, 2014. Mapping site-level microtopography with Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry 
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 58

AARGnews 49 (2014,2)

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Editorial 3
Oscar’s last AARG Chairman’s Piece:  7
Oldie but goodie. Patterns, Processes and Understanding: Historic aerial photographs for landscape studies, 24-26th April 2014, Bedlewo, Poland by Adam Loks 9
AARG notices: Derrick Riley Bursary
Information for contributors 12
Cropmarks 13
Review article by Cathy Stoertz: Flights into the Past 16
Review article by Wlodek Raczkowski: Seeing from Above 18
Books of interest? 22
Rebecca Bennett, Dave Cowley & Véronique De Laet, 2014.  The data explosion: tackling the taboo of automatic feature recognition in airborne survey data. 
Juan Antonio Pérez, Francisco Manuel Bascon and María Cristina Charro, 2014.  Photogrammetric usage of 1956-57 USAF aerial photography of Spain. 
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 24

AARGnews 48 (2014,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece: The contribution of aerial techniques to archaeology by Oscar Aldred 6
AARG 2014, Dublin. First call for papers 8
AARG Vacancies: Chairman, Vice‐Chairman & Honorary Secretary; Derrick Riley Bursary; Information for contributors 9
A Farewell to Ivan Kuzma by Martin Gojda 10
Forthcoming: 5th International Conference on Remote Sensing in Archaeology 12
AARG 2013 Debate Session: Touching images: thinking thorough textures by Dimitrij Mlekuž 13
Between the eye and the mind. Technology, cognition and knowledge development – eye‐tracking study report by Tomasz Michalik 24
Workshop project reports: Gradina – detecting variability and diversity by Neda Ocelić, Jasna Jurković, Natalija Miklavčič, Iva Perković, Suzana Puhar 35
Can you catch a shepherd from an airplane? Interpreting aerial photographs of Bukovica
by Filomena Sirovica, Mario Bodružić, Ivan Huljev, Iva Perinić and Ante Purušić 44
Workshop reports: From point cloud to Local Relief Model: a report and case study from the “LiDAR – innovative technology for archaeology” training school in Poznań, Poland by Mikołaj Kostyrko 51
“In one week learn how to prepare and fly your drone to survey in 3D your Cultural Heritage” by Nina Heiska 58
Cropmarks 62
Books of interest? 63
Martin Gojda and Jan John (eds). 2013. Archeologie a letecké laserové  skenování  krajiny  (Archaeology and airborne laser scanning of the landscape).
Sándor Berecki, Zoltán Czajlik, László Rupnik, 2013. Aerial archaeological prospection on the middle course of the Mureş river and adjacent areas.
Chris Musson. 2013. Radnorshire from Above: images of landscape and archaeology.
C. Corsi et al. (eds.). 2013. Good Practice in Archaeological Diagnostics: non‐invasive Survey of Complex Archaeological Sites.
Jared Schuettera, et al. 2013. Autodetection of ancient Arabian tombs in high‐resolution satellite imagery.
A Celebration of 50 years of The British Cartographic Society. 2013.
The Buildings Book 2014 (by The Geoinformation Group).
Hans Kamermans et al. (eds). 2014. A Sense of the Past: Studies in current archaeological applications of remote sensing and non‐invasive prospection methods.
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 67

AARGNews 47 (2013,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Oscar Aldred 6
Anniversary Reflections from a Founder Member by Cathy Stoertz 8
Non-invasive Archaeological Training School in Pécs, Hungary: Remote sensing from sky and ground by Mikolaj Kostyrko and Adam Loks 13
Traces of the Past Exhibition Opens in Dublin by Rob Shaw 17
Google Earth: Improving Mapping Accuracy by Irwin Scollar 19
4G (GeoSetter, GoogleEarth, Geoportal, GIS): or a new dimension in the use of spatial data by Lidka Zuk 28
Stereo photography for airborne observers by Rog Palmer 39
Roger Agache 1926 – 2011 by Irwin Scollar 45
Forthcoming workshop; Information for AARGnews contributors 48
Cropmarks 49
Books of interest? 53
Rachel Opitz and Steve Davis. What Next? Aerial Archaeology as Landscape Archaeology.
Roland Linck. Analysis of Umayyad desert fortresses in the Near East by Declassified CORONA satellite images.
Archaeological Prospection Vol 20, Issue 2 (April/June 2013)
Blog of interest?
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 54

AARGnews 46 (2013,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Oscar Aldred 6

AARG 2013, Amersfoort 9
Interpreting Archaeological Topography: blurb + ordering information 10
YAARG – an open working party of AARG by Johanna Dreßler and Oscar Aldred 12
Forthcoming conference; Workshop; Information for contributors 14
Aerial Archaeology Workshop in Doha, Qatar: February 10-14 2013 by Bob Bewley, David Kennedy and Wlodek Raczkowski 15
What do you see here? Review of Archaeology from Aerial Photographs, an International Workshop at Bamberg, Germany by Marko Barišic and Alexander Veling 19
53 years of technical progress in aerial archaeology 1960-2013: a cursus at Karden Kreis Cochem, Germany by Irwin Scollar and Otto Braasch 22
A geoarchaeologist’s view of aerial archaeology by David Jordan 29
Integrating magnetometer surveys and oblique aerial photographs by Jörg Fassbinder 37
Musings on a past and future for AARG? by Rog Palmer 42
Cropmarks 50
Review article (Roman Camps in Scotland) by Toby Driver 52
Books of interest? 55
Rebecca Bennett. Archaeological remote sensing: visualisation and analysis of grass-dominated environments using airborne laser scanning and digital spectral data. (PhD Thesis)
Martin Gojda and Martin Trefny (ed). Archeologie Krajiny pod Rípem (Archaeology in the Landscape around the Hill of Ríp)
Michael Doneus, Christian Gugl and Nives Doneus, 2013. Die Canabae von Carnuntum – eine Modellstudie der Erforschung römischer Lagervorstädte Von der
Luftbildprospektion zur siedlungsarchäologischen Synthese

Lis Helles Olesen and Kira Jørstad Klinkby. Frededefortidsminder  fra  luften:  muligheder  for  egistrering  fra luften
Hanson, W.S and Oltean, I.A. (ed). Archaeology from Historical Aerial and Satellite Archives
Comer, D.C. and Harrower, M.J. (ed). Mapping Archaeological Landscapes from Space
Alexandra Cordier. Archéologie aérienne en Côte-d’Or en 2011: les aléas d’une sécheresse précoce.Revue Archéologique de l’Est, t.61 (2012), 371-383
Plus shorter notices….
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 60

AARGnews 45 (2012,2)

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Frontispiece: London Olympics 2012 by Otto Braasch 2
Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Oscar Aldred 6
Aerial Archaeology course, Czech Republic, 18-23 June 2012 by Lucie Culikova 9
A picture is worth a thousand words…at least at the Aerial Archaeology Training School in Merida! by Cristina Charro Lobato 11
Report on summer school of “Potential of satellite images and hyper-/multispectral recording in archaeology” 30th July – 3rd August 2012 by Jitka Jizerova 14
First Aerial Archaeology Research and Training School in Turkey 20 – 30th July 2012 a.k.a. No Sick Bag For You by Marko Cekovic 17
Forthcoming workshop and conferences 19
Four photos taken from a balloon over Berlin in the infancy of aerial photography by Ole Risbøl and Susanne Kaun 20

Things on strings and complex computer algorithms: Kite Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion Photogrammetry at the Tulul adh-Dhahab, Jordan by Jochen Reinhard 37
What a difference a year makes: preliminary DART datasets from Cherry Copse, Cirencester by R. Fry, D. Stott, D. Boddice and A. R. Beck 42
Pickering’s packages: some thoughts on cursus monuments by Kenneth Brophy 48
Aerial reconnaissance of maritime landscapes in Scotland – some preliminary observations on context, methodology and results by Dave Cowley, Jonathan Benjamin and Colin Martin 64
Aerial Archaeology in Jordan 2010-2012 by Bob Bewley, David Kennedy, Rebecca Banks and Mat Dalton 74
Cropmarks 82
Information for contributors 83
Review article (Historic Wales from the Air) by Oscar Aldred 84
Books of interest? 86
Rebecca Bennett, Kate Welham, Ross A. Hill and Andrew Ford. A Comparison of Visualization Techniques for Models Created from Airborne Laser Scanned Data
Arne Ramisch, Wiebke Bebermeier, Kai Hartmann, Brigitta Schütt, Nicole Alexanian. Fractals in topography: Application to geoarchaeological studies in the surroundings of the necropolis of Dahshur, Egypt
David L. Kennedy. Pioneers above Jordan: revealing a prehistoric landscape
David C. Cowley and Birger B. Stichelbaut. Historic Aerial Photographic Archives for European Archaeology
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 88

AARGNews 44 (2012,1)

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Editorial 2
Chairman’s Piece by Oscar Aldred 5
AARG 2012: Budapest, Hungary: First call for papers 7
Computer vision techniques: towards automated orthophoto production by G. Verhoeven, M. Doneus and Ch. Briese 8
Georeferenced Orthophotos and DTMs from Multiple Oblique Images by Irwin Scollar and Daniel Giradeau-Montaut 12
Fast and automated image rectification with a small (free) software by Gianluca Cantoro 18
Messy Landscapes Manifesto by Dimitrij Mlekuž 22
A review of the CORONA Atlas of the Middle East (Beta) by Martin J F Fowler 24
The role of aerial photographs in monitoring change and managing ancient monuments: a case study from Scotland by Aelfwynn Freer 30
AARG News 35
Young AARG by Johanna Dreßler and Vedrana Glavaš 36
Workshops, forthcoming, etc 37
Cropmarks 41
A book review (A View from the Air) and some observations on publication by Dave Cowley 45
Books of interest? 49
Martyn Barber. A History of Aerial Photography and Archaeology: Mata Hari’s glass eye and other stories.
J. Henry Fair. The Day after Tomorrow: Images of our Earth in crisis.
Verhoeven, G. and Doneus, M., 2011. Balancing on the Borderline – a Low-cost Approach to Visualize the Red-edge Shift for the Benefit of Aerial Archaeology.
M. J. F. Fowler. Modelling the acquisition times of CORONA satellite photographs: accuracy and application.
M. J. F. Fowler. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs and the archaeology of Moscow’s Cold War anti-ballistic missile system.
L. Helles Olesen, H. Dupont, C. Dam. Luftfotos over Danmark: luftfotoserier I private og offentlige arkiver.
Papers from past CPIA symposia
Helen Wickstead and Martyn Barber. A Spectacular History of Survey by Flying Machine!
Allan Williams. Above Wartime Europe: The Top Secret Aerial Photographs of World War Two.
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 54

AARGnews 43 (2011,2)

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Editorial 2
Chairman’s Piece by Włodek Rączkowski 4
Participated in AATS in Kostolac and lived to tell by Miroslav Birclin 8
Group photos from the training schools at Kostolac, Serbia and Velling, Denmark 11
Aerial Archaeology Training School, Denmark, 2-8 July 2011 by Lis Helles Olesen, Pete Horne, Chris Musson 12
A flying tablet PC: developments in digital flying maps for aerial survey at RCAHMS by Kevin H.J. Macleod and Dave C. Cowley 15
Calibrating GeoPortal Maps and Orthophotos by Irwin Scollar 20
Problems of reconnaissance of the karst landscape – an example of the northern sub-Velebit littoral, Croatia by Vedrana Glavaš 24
News from New Zealand by Kevin Jones 30
Flying in a Rainy Spring: Romanian Surveys in 2011 by Irina Oberländer-Târnoveanu and Carmen Bem 33
Cropmarks 2011 in Poland – is there a need for further discussion? by Włodek Rączkowski 37
bq. (with an Editor’s note) 42
Happy Lands Enclosure at Wiggold, Ampney Crucis, Gloucestershire by Bob Bewley and Tim Darvill 43
Comments on flying, observations and photographs, 2011 by Numerous Authors 44
Air Photo Services is 21 by Rog Palmer and Chris Cox 50
The English Landscapes and Identities Project press release from Lucy Palmer 51
Information, summer workshop 52
High-flyers of tomorrow: teaching young archaeologists by Tara-Jane Sutcliffe 53
Cropmarks 55
Book (etc) of interest? 56
Caroline Ingle and Helen Saunders. Aerial Archaeology in Essex: the role of the National Mapping Programme in interpreting the landscape.
Toby Driver. Seen from the air – the story of Wales.
Dave Cowley and Colin Martin. Coastal Command: surveying Scotland’s maritime superhighway.
Martyn Barber. Flying, pigs and Stonehenge.
Alastair Oswald and Matt Oakey. Putting the prehistory of the North Pennines on the map.
Crop evapotranspiration – Guidelines for computing crop water requirements
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 57
PS – CUCAP reopens 58

AARGnews 42 (2011,1)

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Editorial 2
Chairman’s Piece 4
AARG 2011. Call for papers, dates and information 9
AARG 2010 Conference, Bucharest, Romania by Rob Fry, David Stott, Laura Pring and Dan Boddice 10
Archaeological remote sensing and geophysics: Munster 2010: Conference review by Johanna Dreßler 12
New legs for a long-term pursuit by Chris Musson, for the ArchaeoLandscapes Europe Project (ArcLAND) 16
Aerial archaeological substantiation of a Roman cadastre system’s predictive model by András Bödőcs 20
An EPPIC Odyssey into Aerial Archaeology by Tara-Jane Sutcliffe 29
Information, conference, summer schools, workshop 34
Cropmarks 37
Book Review by Irwin Scollar – Neubauer et al, Mittelneolithische Kreisgrabenanlagen in Niederösterreich 39
Books of interest? 41
Ian Roberts with Alison Deegan and David Berg. Understanding the Cropmark Landscapes of the Magnesian Limestone.
Klára Kuzmová (ed). Klasická archeológia a exaktné vedy, výskumné metódy a techniky II. 2. (Ivan Kuzma) Letecká archeológia
Rebecca M Bailey, James Crawford and Alan Williams. Above Scotland Cities
David Kennedy and M.C. Bishop. Google Earth and the Archaeology of Saudi Arabia: a case study from the Jeddah area
David C Cowley (ed.). Remote Sensing for Archaeological Heritage Management
Stephen Trow, Vincent Holyoak and Emmet Byrnes (eds.). Heritage Management of Farmed and Forested Landscapes in Europe
Jörg Bofinger and Dirk Krausse (eds). Aktuelle Forschungen zu den Kelten in Europa: Festkolloquium für Landeskonservator Jörg Biel
The London Journal: a themed issue containing some papers given at a seminar called Eyes Over London: Re-imagining the Metropolis in the Age of Aerial Vision EH NMP Reports
Martin Gojda (ed). Studie k Dálkovému Pruzkumu v Archeologii
Ali Madan Al-Ali. Spatial analysis about the archaeological sites in Wadi Alghayran of the Rub’ Al-Khali desert
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 44

AARGnews 41 (2010,2)

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A rather lengthy editorial 2
Chairman’s Piece: Changing Perspectives by Wlodek Raczkowski 7
LBI for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology by Michael Doneus and Wolfgang Neubauer 11
A 35 years old exhibition catalogue rediscovered: The Catalogue of the “Aerial Archaeology” Exhibition in Bucharest, with a foreword by Dr Irwin Scollar by Irina Oberländer-Târnoveanu 12
Aerial Archaeology in Jordan 2010: a brief up-date by Bob Bewley, David Kennedy, Francesca Radcliffe, Karen Henderson and Stafford Smith 13
The first space photographs and the origins of satellite archaeology by Martin J F Fowler 25
Flying review 2010
Flying in Denmark summer 2010 by Lis Helles Olesen 39
Summer 2010 England by Damian Grady, Dave Macleod, Pete Horne 40
Reconnaissance in Muntenia/Oltenia/SE Transylvania, Romania, 2010 by Bill Hanson and Ioana Oltean 41
Scotland by Dave Cowley and Kevin Macleod 42
Frustrations of Flying in NE Scotland by Moira Greig 43
Information, adverts, etc 44
Cropmarks 45
Books of interest? 47
Rog Palmer, Irina Oberländer-Târnoveanu and Carmen Bem. Arheologie aeriană. În România şi Europa
Kevin L. Jones. Nga Tohuwhenua Mai Te Rangi: A New Zealand Archaeology in Aerial Photographs
Verhoeven, G. It’s All about the Format – Unleashing the Power of RAW Aerial Photography
Verhoeven, G. and Schmitt, K. An Attempt to Push Back Frontiers – Digital Near- UltraViolet Aerial Archaeology
Simon Crutchley. The Light Fantastic: using airborne lidar in archaeological survey
Stefano Campana, Maurizio Forte and Claudia Liuzza. Space, Time, Place Third International Conference on Remote Sensing in Archaeology, 17th-21st August 2009, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India
Helvetia Archaeologica volume 125/126: Luftbildarchäologie
David Cowley, Robin Standring and Matthew Abicht. Landscape through the Lens: aerial photographs and Historic environment
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 51

AARGnews 40 (2010,1)

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Editorial 2

Photo Offerings 4
Chairman’s Piece by Wlodek Raczkowski 5
AARG 2010, Bucharest – info and call for papers 9
ArchaeoLandscapes Europe: a new European project for aerial archaeology, remote sensing and landscape conservation by Chris Musson (Development Officer, AARG) 10
The DART project: Developing the roadmap for archaeological remote sensing in the 21st century by Anthony Beck 15
‘Gone with the Wind’ Aerial Photography of Bâtiment Pi, Malia, Crete (Bronze Age) by Christophe Gaston, Thibaut Gomrée, Maia Pomadère 17
Ultima Thule – recent aerial survey of Orkney, Scotland by Dave Cowley 25
Information, adverts, etc 36
Cropmarks 37
Books of interest? 38
Birger Stichelbaut. World War One aerial photography: an archaeological perspective.
Martin Fowler. Corona mission declassified.
Colin Haselgrove (ed). The Traprain Law Environs Project: fieldwork and excavations, 2000-2004.
T.A. Warner, M.D. Nellis and G.M. Foody. The SAGE Handbook of Remote Sensing.
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 39

AARGnews 39 (2009,2)

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Editorial 2
Why interpretation?: Chairman’s Piece by Wlodek Raczkowski  5
Archaeological Prospecting Using High-Resolution Digital Satellite Imagery: Recent Advances and Future Prospects – A Session Held at the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA) Conference, Williamsburg, USA, March 2009 by V. De Laet and K. Lambers 9
Finding burial mounds from space: automatic detection of circular soil marks and crop marks in QuickBird imagery of agricultural land in south-east Norway by Øivind Due Trier, Siri Øyen Larsen and Rune Solberg 18
Inspiring Google Earth Precise Positioning by Irwin Scollar 25
Using the results of the National Mapping Programme in England: some examples from Shropshire by Andy Wigley 32
Aerial Archaeology and Remote Sensing in Indian Archaeological Research by Manjil Hazarika 36
Cropmarks 38
Archaeological Prospection and Remote Sensing: Standing the test of time? Review article by Anthony Beck 39
Other books of interest? 42
Peter Halkon. Archaeology and Environment in a Changing East Yorkshire Landscape: The Foulness Valley c. 800 BC to c. AD 400
Sarah H Parcak. Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeology
Information for contributors 43
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 44

AARGnews 38 (2009,1)

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Editorial 2
In the shadow of crisis: Chairman’s Piece 5

AARG 2009 Siena 9
The role of efficiency in aerial archaeological research of Hungary by Zoltán Czajlik 10
GIS-based analysis of aerial photography, soils and landuse by Johanna Dreßler 18
Recording Landscape and Urban Area Modification:
an example from Southern Italy by Pierfrancesco Rescio 25
Small but Perfectly Functional – Quadrocopters and Archaeological Recording by Graeme J Collie, Mike Smith, Ian Black 31
Aerial archaeologists’ meeting at Mainz, Germany by Johanna Dreßler 41
Information for contributors 41
Review article. The influence of aerial photography on the artworks of Kate Whiteford by Sarah Horlock 42
Other books of interest? 46
Juris Urtāns. Augšzemes Ezeri: arheoloğija un folklore [Lakes of Augšzemes: archaeology and folklore]

Stefano Campana and Salvatore Piro. Seeing the Unseen. Geophysics and Landscape Archaeology
Birger Stichelbaut, Jean Bourgeois, Nicholas Saunders and Piet Chielens (eds). Images of Conflict: Military Aerial Photography and Archaeology
Peter Halkon. Archaeology and Environment in a Changing East Yorkshire Landscape: The Foulness Valley c. 800 BC to c. AD 400
Cropmarks 49
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 50

AARGnews 37 (2008,2)

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Editorial 2
Information for contributors 5
Chairman’s Piece 6
The AARG Archives Working Group by Robin Standring, Matt Abicht and Dave Cowley on behalf of the AARG committee 10
The Centre for Aerial Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow by W S Hanson 12
Using Google Earth Imagery by Irwin Scollar and Rog Palmer 15
The Archaeological Sites of Afghanistan in Google Earth by David C. Thomas, Fiona J. Kidd, Suzanna Nikolovski and Claudia Zipfel 22
Towards more efficient aerial survey: notes on flying maps by Dave C Cowley and Kevin H J Macleod 31
Not roman Centuriation but Greek Chora (land division): discovered from the air – ‘rectified’ by subsequent ground survey by Francesca Radcliffe 37
Mostiştea River Project, Romania, 2008 by Rog Palmer 40
Digging cropmarks: the Forteviot cropmark complex, Perthshire, Scotland by Kenneth Brophy 42
Advertisement: Mapping Ancient Landscapes in Northamptonshire 47
Cropmarks 48
Book of interest? 49
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 55

AARGnews 36 (2008,1)

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Editorial 2
Chairman’s Piece 5
AARG 2008, Ljubljana – outline of sessions & a call for papers 8
Report on the AARG Conference, Copenhagen 2007 by Johannes Heinzel 9
The demise of NAPLIB 10
A beginner’s guide to transformation programs compiled by Irwin Scollar et al 11
Locally Adaptive Tone Mapping for Colour and Exposure Error Correction by Irwin Scollar 19
Planning for your next computer disaster by Irwin Scollar 31
Military trenches or Ancient Fortification Constructions? by D. Kaimaris, O. Georgoula, G. Karadedos and P. Patias 33
Short report: Fli-map 400 LiDAR system by Anthony Corns, Robert Shaw 42
Book of interest? 47
Erasmus programme 48
Erasmus Student Placement Programme 2007/08 – facts and thoughts from the student’s point of view by Ania Sokołowska 49
The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives (TARA) by Lesley Ferguson 50
The Aerofilms Collection by Katy Whitaker 51
Information for contributors 51
New websites: Cornwall HERNMP and RCAHMW 52
Cropmarks 53
AARG: general information, membership, addresses, student bursaries 54

AARGnews 35 (2007,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece – September 2007 by Dave Cowley 5
Sputnik at fifty: the archaeological legacy of the world’s first artificial satellite by Martin J F Fowler 7
Flying to the past in Nord-Trøndelag by Lars Forseth 18
The Archaeology of a Forgotten Landscape. Air survey and landscape archaeology in County Durham by Richard Hewitt, Gemma Pallant and Sally Radford 24
Aerial Archaeology, Computer Visualisation and Past Landscapes: an international workshop 33
Why don’t you write something about the last Summer School in Foggia? by Gianluca Cantoro 34
The first aerial archaeology workshop in Jordan, April 14-16, 2007 by Bob Bewley, David Kennedy and Francesca Radcliffe 36
Workshop in Jordan – a view from the floor by Robin Standring 39
Warsztaty Archeologii Lotniczej: Poznań – 29 April to 5 May 2007 by Rog Palmer & Włodek Rączkowski 41
Culture 2000: APILS Workshop: Poznań, Poland: 6 to 11 August 2007 by Rog Palmer and Włodek Rączkowski 42
Cropmarks 44
Books of interest? 45

Cain Hegarty and Sarah Newsome. Suffolk’s Defended Shore: Coastal Fortifications from the Air.
Fabrice Denise and Lévon Nordighian (ed). Une aventure archéologique : Antoine Poidebard, photographe et aviateur..
Kitty Hauser. Shadow Sites. Photography, Archaeology, and the British Landscape 1927-1955.
Tim Newark. Camouflage.
Alan Crossley, Tom Hassall and Peter Salway (ed). William Morris’s Kelmscott: landscape and history.
Hadrian Cook and Tom Williamson (ed). Water Meadows: history, ecology and conservation.
List of Contributors 50

AARGnews 34 (2007,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Dave Cowley 5

Treasurer’s note by Helen Winton 8
Call for papers: AARG 2007: Copenhagen 9
Annual Meeting of AARG: 10th – 13th September 2007: (Lesson of juggling) by Aleksandra (Ola) Wilgocka 10
Terry James: a personal recollection by Chris Musson 12
The ‘AeroDat’ project – 21st century archaeological aerial survey by Patrick Nagy and Ulrich Schenther 14
Access Grid Seminars by Chris Gaffney 28
Did the digital ®evolution change the concept of focal length? by Geert Verhoeven 30
Report on the XVIIth ISSA, Exploring Archaeological Landscapes 27 November – 1 December 2006, Rocca San Silvestro, Tuscany by Benjamin N. Vis 36
From Heavens Above: European Cultural Landscapes Revealed By Aerial Archaeology. Seminar Schwerin (Germany), 29th-31st January 2007 by Susanne Gerhard 38
Digital AARGnews? by Rog Palmer for the AARG Committee 41
Cropmarks 42
Book news and offer: Populating Clay Landscapes 43
Books of interest? 44

Francesca Franchin Radcliffe. Paesaggi sepolti in Daunia: John Bradford e la ricerca archeologica dal cielo, 1945/1957.
Michael Doneus and Christian Briese. Full-waveform airborne laser scanning as a tool for archaeological reconnaissance.
Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini. On the potential of QuickBird Data for archaeological prospection.
Toby Driver. Pembrokeshire: historic landscapes from the air.
Richard Jones & Mark Page. Medieval Villages in an English Landscape, Beginnings and Ends.
Sam Turner (ed). Medieval Devon and Cornwall: Shaping an Ancient Countryside.
List of Contributors 50

AARGnews 33 (2006,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Dave Cowley 7

Bringing Air and Water Together. Training School in Aerial Archaeology, Barth, Germany, 1-5 May 2006 by Susanne Gerhard 10
Aerial Archaeology Training Course, 1-9 July 2006, Cirencester, England by Alma Ziemele 16
It is time to have some Membership Rules! by Cinzia Bacilieri (AARG Hon Sec) 18
Contextualising the cropmark record: the timber monuments of the Neolithic of Scotland by Kirsty Millican 19
Using GPS with Digital Cameras by Michael Doneus and Irwin Scollar 28
Forthcoming events 33
Modelling the acquisition times of CORONA KH-4B satellite photographs by Martin Fowler 34
A good year for cropmarks in Wales by Toby Driver 40
Soilmarks 27, 43
Books of interest? 24

Zbigniew Kobylinski. Archaologia lotnicza w Polsce
Jacek Nowakowski, Andrzej Prinke and Wlodzimierz Raczkowski. Biskupin… i co dalej? [Biskupin … and what next? Aerial photographs in Polish archaeology]
Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini. On the potential of QuickBird data for archaeological prospection.
List of Contributors 46

AARGnews 32 (2006,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Dave Cowley 6

A career in AARG? (job ads) 9
AARG 2006 Bath, UK – call for papers 10
Other forthcoming events 11, 29
Digital Jottings by Gwil Owen 12
Seminar on aerial archaeology in Ireland by Ian Doyle 17
Honorary membership for Chris Musson MBE by Toby Driver 20
Colour correction and colour cast reduction by Irwin Scollar 21
Your help wanted by Anthony Crawshaw 29
Signposts for GX – looking for prints by Chris Going 30
Soilmarks 32
Books of interest? 24
Program of the Second Round Table on Archaeology and Geoinformatics.
Jean Bourgeois and Marc Megnack (ed). Aerial Photography and Archaeology 2003: a century of information.
David C Cowley and Simon M D Gilmour. Aerial survey in Scotland 2003. Discovery from the air: a pit-defined cursus monument in Fife.
Otto Braasch. Vom heiteren Himmell …. Luftbildarchäologie.
Research News: newsletter of the English Heritage Research Department
Arzu Çöltekin, Foveation for 3D Visualization and Stereo Imaging Lee Ullmann and Yuri Gorokhovich. Google Earth and some practical applications for the field of archaeology. RCAHMW. Report 2005-2005.
Toby Driver. Seeing Wales from a Cessna
List of Contributors 37

AARGnews 31 (2005,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Toby Driver 5
J. S. P. Bradford 1918-1975 by Francesca Radcliffe 9

Aerial archaeology above the tree line by Michael Doneus and Katharina Rebay 17
Book news: From the Air: understanding aerial archaeology 26
From hermetic circle to hermeneutic spiral and beyond? Some remarks on the potential of TAARG by Lidka Zuk 27
In what sense is ‘Illustration’ a prime use of airphotographs? by David Wilson 32
Forthcoming meeting: Populating Clay Landscapes 33
An evaluation of scanned CORONA intelligence satellite photography by Martin Fowler 34
Google Maps by Rog Palmer 38
Cropmarks 40
Books of interest? 41
Martin Gojda (ed). Ancient Landscape, Settlement Dynamics and Non-Destructive Archaeology: Czech research project 1997-2002.

List of Contributors 43

AARGnews 30 (2005,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Toby Driver 6
AARG 2005: call for papers 7
Culture 2000: Helsinki, October 2004 8
Stonehenge from the air in 1900: the ballooning adventures of the Reverend John McKenzie Bacon by Martyn Barber 9
AARG special one-day meeting. Populating Clay Landscapes: Recent advances in archaeology on difficult soils 17
Aerial survey of abandoned agricultural fields in the ancient Tibetan kingdom of Guge: recent findings from 2-foot resolution QuickBird imagery of Bedongpo and environs by Karl E Ryavec 18
Radial distortion correction by Irwin Scollar 26
Indexing vertical aerial photograph collections: an introduction to www.airphotofinder.com by Peter McKeague 28
Cropmarks 31
Cropmarx at the Theoretical Archaeology Group: a review by Tessa Poller and Rebecca Jones 32
Cropmarks 33
A Chinese trail: some remarks on the International Conference on Remote Sensing Archaeology in Beijing, China (18-21.10.2004) by Wlodek Raczkowski and Martin Gojda 34
The AARG committee 38
List of Contributors 40

AARGnews 29 (2004,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Toby Driver 6
Dusty treasure: thoughts on a visit to The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives at Keele University (UK) by Wlodek Raczkowski 9
Cropmarks 12
Stories from the seaside: the results of coastal NMP in Suffolk by Sarah Newsome and Cain Hegarty 13
The rescue of the Po Valley and discovery of a local Indiana Jones by Cinzia Bacilieri 20
Books of interest? 24
W.S Hanson and Ioana A Oltean. ‘The identification of Roman buildings from the air: recent discoveries in Western Transylvania’. Archaeological Prospection 10 (2003), 101-117.
Ioana A Oltean. ‘Rural settlement in Roman Dacia: some considerations’. In W S Hanson and I P Hayes (ed) Roman Dacia: the making of a provincial society. Portsmouth, Rhode Island 2004, 143-164.
Martin J F Fowler. ‘Archaeology through the keyhole: the serendipity effect of aerial reconnaissance revisited’. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 29:2 (2004), 118-134.
List of Contributors 26

AARGnews 28 (2004,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Toby Driver 5
AARG 2004 7
Conferences of interest? 8
Origins and early history of AARG: a celebration of our first 21 years – and an excuse to look forward compiled by Rog Palmer with appended the original idea and letters by Paul Ashbee 9
Constitution of The Aerial Archaeology Research Group with proposed changes masterminded by Davy Strachan 18
Photographic archives and historical cartography: the case of Kyme (NA). Methodological problems and objectives by Laura Del Verme 23
Aerial Archaeology in Denmark by Lis Helles Olesen 27
The Cambridge University campaign in Denmark 1966-70 by David Wilson 35
Books of interest? 38
I.A.Oltean and W.S.Hanson. Military vici in Roman Dacia: an aerial perspective. Acta Mvsei Napocensis 38/1, 123-134.
Lech Czerniak, Wlodzimierz Raczkowski, & Wojciech Sosnowski. New prospects for the study of Early Neolithic longhouses in the Polish Lowlands. www.antiquity.ac.uk, Projects, September 2003.
Sarah Newsome, Coastal Landscapes of Suffolk during the Second World War. Landscapes (2003) 4:2, 42-58.
Georg Gerster, Archaeologische Staetten der Menschheit in 251 Flugbildern.
Jason Hawkes, The Art of Photography from the Sky.
Spatial visualisations of aerial-archaeological marks by Eckhard Heller
Cropmarks 43
List of Contributors 42
Useful reminders..? 46

AARGnews 27 (2003,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Toby Driver 5
AARG 2004 7
Remembrance of Miroslav Bálek († 24. 6. 2003) by Martin Godja 8
Aerial Archaeology Research School – Foggia, 2003 by Chris Musson and Cathy Stoertz 9
Aerial Archaeology on Clay Geologies by Jessica L. Mills 12
The Unknown Prekmurje – Records Of The Region’s Past From The Air by Branko Kerman 20
On the front line: a novice view. Biskupin … but what next? Aerial photographs in Polish Archaeology. May 22-24, 2003, Leszno, Poland by Lidka Zuk 22
Summer (or winter for some) flying 2003 by Many Emails 27
Aerial photography: the use of wheelbarrows by Gwil Owen 28
Wings over Armenia: April-May 2003 – report and reflection by Rog Palmer 32
Statement on priorities for European aerial archaeology by AARG Committee 35
Cropmarks 37
Books of interest? 39
Eriksen, Palle & Olesen, Lis Helles. Fortiden set fra himlen. Luftfotoarkæologi i Vestjylland [Looking at the past from the air. Aerial archaeology in western Jutland
Nigel Brown, Debbie Knopp and Davy Strachan. The archaeology of Constable Country: the crop-marks of the Stour Valley.
Gillian Barrett. Flights of discovery: archaeological air survey in Ireland 1989-2000.
Getmapping + Harper Collins Publishers. England: the photographic atlas.
Marcello Guaitoli, Lo sguardo di Icaro: le collezioni dell’Aerofototeca Nazionale per la conoscenza del territorio.
List of Contributors 42

AARGnews 26 (2003,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Toby Driver 5
Irwin Scollar – new AARG Honorary Member 8
Honorary Secretary’s report by Kenneth Brophy 9
The archaeological potential of declassified KH-7 and KH-9 intelligence satellite photographs by Martin J F Fowler 11
AARG 2003 17
A local stretch method for fitting old maps or non-optical images to new maps by Irwin Scollar 18
Using the local stretching function of AirPhoto 3 to correct a late-eighteenth century map of the Isle of Wight, UK by David Motkin 23
Cropmarks 29
Freeing the Skies for Air Photography by Otto Braasch, Chris Musson and Bob Bewley 31
Canterbury Tales by Jessica Mills 33
Space Applications for Heritage Conservation Strasbourg: 5-8 November 2002 by Rog Palmer 35
Armenia, Sept-October 2002 – the birth of Wings over Armenia by Rog Palmer 37
Things to do in your spare time – other forthcoming events 40
Books of interest? 41
Wlodzimierz Raczkowski. Archeologia Lotnicza – Metoda wobec teorii [Aerial Archaeology – Method in the face of theory]
Kevin Jones and Vanessa Tanner. Archaeological survey of the southern Hawke’s Bay coast from the air.
Branko Kerman. Neznano Prekmurje: zapisi preteklosti krajine iz zraka (The Unknown Prekmurje: records from the air of the past history of the region).
… and brief mention of half a dozen others.
List of Contributors 45
Grown ups’ page 46

AARGnews 25 (2002,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Davy Strachan 5

Honorary Secretary’s (Treasurer’s) Report by Kenneth Brophy 6
Forthcoming events 7
GIS-mounted digital historical mapping as an aid to aerial photograph interpretation: a case-study from Scotland by G J Barclay 8
Aerial survey in Italy: an update by Chris Musson and Otto Braasch 13
A flight in Ukraine by Alessandro Rizzo 15
Ten years of aerial archaeology in Bohemia: a jubilee conference by Martin Gojda 19
Computer Applications in Archaeology Conference 2002 by Chris Musson, with a little bit of assistance by Otto Braasch 21
Armenia, June 2002 – setbacks and progress by Rog Palmer 23
Internet access to air photos across Europe? by Chris Musson, writing for himself and Otto Braasch 25
Software for anaglyphs by Toby Driver and Rog Palmer 29
Cropmarks 31
Books of interest? 33
R. Christlein and Otto Braasch. Das unterirdische Bayern: 7000 Jahre Geschichte und Archaeologie im Luftbild.
Thomas J Campanella. Cities from the Sky: and aerial portrait of America.
David McOmish, David Field and Graham Brown. The Field Archaeology of the Salisbury Plain Training Area.
List of Contributors 35

AARGnews 24 (2002,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Davy Strachan 5
Honorary Secretary’s Report by Kenneth Brophy 7
A Bird’s Eye View of the Welsh Uplands by Toby Driver 8
The Vienna Experience by Matthew Oakey 9
Sub-Metre Resolution Satellite Imagery by Martin J. F. Fowler 11
The Map maker’s “Tower of Babel” by Irwin Scollar 14
Recording industrial buildings from the air – the case of the Brynmawr Rubber Factory by Toby Driver 26
Derrick Riley Bursary for Aerial Archaeology 32
Thinking and doing aerial photography by Kenneth Brophy 33
Aerial Research in Armenia 2001 by Rog Palmer 40
Towards digital records: notes and thoughts collected by Rog Palmer 42
Cropmarks 44
Printing photographs: a quest for acceptable quality discussed and concocted by Otto Braasch, Zbigniew Kobylinski and Rog Palmer 46
Books of interest? 52
List of Contributors

AARGnews 23 (2001,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Davy Strachan 5
Verticals/Obliques: seventh note by Anthony Crawshaw 6
Siena 2001 – Aerial Archaeology Research Week by Cathy Stoertz 7
Territorial study through aerial photography: the Siena 2001 experience by Federica Santagati 9
Kodak drop PhotoCD by Anthony Crawshaw 12
The Stour Valley Project, England: the archaeology of Constable Country. Part 2: discussion by D.Strachan 13
Cropmarks 28
How to get First World War APs from the Internet by Peter Haupt 29
Kite Aerial Photography in Egypt’s Western Desert by Richard Knisely-Marpole 33
Rosia 2001: no comment 38
Aerial Archaeology by Remote Controlled Micro Aircraft by Michael Schönherr 39
“The site was discovered on an aerial photograph.” Thoughts on the ‘when’ of discovery by Rog Palmer 46
Books of interest? 48

List of Contributors


AARGnews 22 (2001,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Davy Strachan 5
AARG Annual Meeting, September 2000: abstracts 7
Notes from a newcomer by Eleanor Stapley 27
Archaeological Prospection 2001 / AARG 2001 28
CULTURE 2000: Conservation through aerial` archaeology (CAA) 29
How safe are we in the air? by Damian Grady 30
Draft code of conduct for aerial reconnaissance 33
Whither GPS for aerial archaeology? by Anthony Crawshaw 35
Disenchantment by Jim Pickering 37
An optimistic future? by Bob Bewley 39
NATO Science Programme: Advanced Research Workshop:
Aerial Archaeology – Developing Future Practice
Leszno, Poland: 15-17 November 2000
Official summary 41
Back to Leszno: a personal view by Ioana Oltean 43
Some history of the captured German WWII photography by Anthony Crawshaw 45
Cropmarks 50
Aerial research in Armenia: prospects by Rog Palmer 51
Book of considerable interest..?
D R Wilson. Air Photo Interpretation for Archaeologists 53
Books of interest? 57
G. Lock and K. Brown (eds), 2000. On the theory and practice of archaeological computing. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 51.
Jan Morris, 2001. Wales from the Air.
Bill Finlayson, et al, 1999. The Angus and South Aberdeen Field School of the Department of Archaeology, University of Edinburgh – research design. Tayside Fife Archaeol J 5. Conservation Bulletin 39 (December 2000). ISSN 0753-8674
Derek Edwards (photog). Norfolk from the Air, Volume 2
List of Contributors 58

AARGnews 21 (2000,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Davy Strachan 7
“Obliques or Vertical?” AARG working party: sixth note 8
Archaeological Prospection 2001 9
Test of Ilford SFX 200 film by Anthony Crawshaw 11
Narrow ridge and furrow by David Hall 12
EAA Round Table on aerial survey by Bob Bewley 13
A “strike force” for Europe by Rog Palmer (Otto Braasch) 15
Using AirPhoto 1.51 by Rog Palmer 17
Recent web pages 24
Books of interest? 25
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Scotland from the Air 1939-49. Volume 1. Catalogue of the Luftwaffe Photographs in the NMR.
Wolfgang Kreft. Das östliche Mitteleuropa im Historischen Luftbild Bildflüge 1942-1945 über Brandenburg, Ostpreussen, Polen, Pommern und Schlesien. Sammlungen des Herder-Instituts Zur Ostmittel Europa-Forschung 8
Revue Archeologique de Picardie No 1/2 2000
J.G.B. Haigh. Developing rectification programs for small computers. Archaeological Prospection 7
Julian D Richards et als. Cottam: an Anglian and Anglo-Scandinavian settlement on the Yorkshire Wolds. Archaeological Journal 156
List of Contributors 41

AARGnews 20 (2000,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Davy Strachan 6
Honorary Secretary’s Report by Toby Driver 7
AARG Annual Meeting, Bournemouth, September 1999: summaries 8
Aerial reconnaissance in England: some thoughts for the future by Damian M. Grady 15
Forthcoming events, etc 28
The Stour Valley Project, England: a cropmark landscape in three dimensions. Part 1: methodology by D. Strachan. 29
Vertical and oblique photograhs by Michael Doneus 35
New homepages by V. Arious 42
Aerial Archaeology Workshop Leszno 1998 – the view from behind by Agnieszka Dolatowska, Jolanta Goliasz and Lidka Luk 43
Mobile GIS with in-flight-GPS-Support: ‘Customizing’ Proposal for AA by Eckhard Heller 45
The Colosseum of Rome from 681 kilometres by Martin J.F. Fowler 49
Italy from the ground. Remote Sensing in Archaeology, Summer School, Universita Degli Studi di Siena, December 1999 by Toby Driver and Chris Musson 53
A bibliography of Polish aerial archaeology by P.M. Barford 57
Exhibition: ‘From the air – pictures of our common past in Europe’ by Ivan Kuzma 59
CIRA and AARG 2000 61
Image power? Review article and comment by Kevin Jones 62
Books of interest? 64
J.W.E.Fassbinder and W. Irlinger (eds). Archaeological Prospection: Third International Conference on archaeological prospection, Munich, 9-11 September 1999
R. Featherstone et 16 als. Aerial reconnaissance over England in Summer 1996. Archaeological Prospection 6
RCAHMS. Catalogue of Aerial Photographs 1994
Marilyn Bridges. Egypt antiquities from above.
Mark Bowden (ed). Unravelling the Landscape: an inquisitive approach to archaeology
Lynda J Murray. A Zest for Life: the story of Alexander Keiller.
Branko Kerman. Settlement structures in Prekmurje from the air. Arheoloski vestnik 50
Esse Ericsson, et al. Flygspaning efter Historia.
Actes du colloque international d’archeologie aerienne AMIENS, Octobre 1992. Revue Archeologique de picardie No special 17
List of Contributors 70

AARGnews 19 (1999,2)

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Editorial 3
AARG working groups 5
Chairman’s Piece by Cathy Stoertz 6
Professor Barri Jones appreciations by Bob Bewley and David Kennedy 7
Power of image: some ideas on post-processual aerial archaeology by Wlodzimierz Raczkowski 10
Rowy sa czerwone: Poland – well, Poznan – from the ground by Rog Palmer 15
Books of interest? 18
List of Contributors 22

AARGnews 18 (1999,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Cathy Stoertz 5

AARG 98 7
Small format vertical aerial photography for mapping standing earthworks by Kevin L. Jones 8
Go East Young Man: a new reconnaissance programme in Romania by W.S. Hanson 15
Honorary Secretary’s Photograph by Toby Driver 18
High resolution satellite imagery from the internet by Martin J F Fowler 19
Technical News 22
AARG working groups 22
Where on Earth is it? by Irwin Scollar 23
Derrick Riley Bursary for Aerial Archaeology 34
Third International Conference on Archaeological Prospection 34
Review article by Kevin Jones: T. Darvill and A. Fulton, MARS: The Monuments at Risk Survey of England, 1995. 35
Books of interest? 39
NAPLIB. Directory of Aerial Photographic Collections in the United Kingdom: second edition.
R.H. Bewley (ed). Lincolnshire’s Archaeology from the Air.
M. Doneus and W. Neubauer. 2D combination of prospection data. Archaeological Prospection 5.
G. Robbins.Cropmark landscapes and domestic space. Assemblage issue 3.
CIRA.Bibliography of aerial reconnaissance.
A. Comfort. Remote sensing and archaeological survey on the Euphrates: 1988 report.
List of Contributors 42

AARGnews 17 (1998,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Cathy Stoertz 6

At last … the AARG homepage 8
Aerial archaeology in Africa: the challenge of a continent by Patrick Darling 9
Archaeological applications of imaging radar by Martin J F Fowler and Patrick Darling 19
Aerial archaeology in Jordan 1998 by David Kennedy and Bob Bewley 25
Air Archaeology Training Project in Poland: official statistics 28
Reflections on the Leszno aerial archaeology school by Paul Barford 29
An approach to automated morphological-topographical classification by Sam Redfern 31
Plus ça change by Anthony Crawshaw 38
AARG Conversation No 3: David Wilson and Rog Palmer: 29 July 1998 39
News from Europe 48
Poland at 1600 asa by Rog Palmer 49
Books of interest? 51
David Strachan. Essex from the Air.
E Sauer and S Crutchley. Alchester: a Roman fort and parade ground? Current Archaeology 157.
Various editors. British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography: supplements 2-5: gazetteer of archaeological investigations in England (1990-1994).
Psst …. Wanna see an AP of Baghdad … by Anthony Crawshaw 53
Notices: AARG working group: for sale (Wales from the Air) 54
List of Contributors 55

AARGnews 16 (1998,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Cathy Stoertz 6

AARG notices : AARG98; AARG working group 8
AARG aerial photograph competition: results by Fiona Small 9
Notices : Derrick Riley Bursary; World Archaeology Congress 11
Cerne Abbas Giant, Dorset, England by Francesca Radcliffe 12
The Williamson F24 aerial camera by David Wilson 13
Air photography and GIS; the Northants approach by Phil Markham 17
Nice aerial photo – shame about the site : a cautionary tale from the Tavoliere (S.E. Italy) by Keri Brown 21
Commercial printing and imaging from 35mm slides by Kevin Jones 23
Remote Sensing Society: Archaeology Special Interest Group (from their Newsletter 1 edited by Alison Cauldwell) 27
Aerial Archaeology in Central Europe: a short conference review by Michael Doneus 30
Crop Circles : exhibition of photographs by Anthony Crawshaw 31
Radar images on world wide web by Anthony Crawshaw 33
Workshop Pecs: 22-24 January 1998: summary by Gábor Bertók 36
AirPhoto – A WinNT/Win95 Program for Geometric Processing of Archaeological Air Photos by Irwin Scollar 37
News from Europe 39
Obituary: Tom Hayes by Paul Everson 40
Books of interest? Reviews and mentions : 41
Catherine Stoertz. Ancient Landscapes of the Yorkshire Wolds.
Judith Oexle (ed). From the air – pictures of our common past in Europe (Aus der Luft – Bilder unserer Geschichte : Luftbildarchaologie in Zentraleuropa).
F H A Aalen, K Whelan and M Stout (ed). Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape.
W Creamer, J Hass and T Mann. Applying photogrammetric mapping: a case study from northern New Mexico. American Antiquity, 62(2).
Jacqueline 1 McKinley, Bronze Age ‘barrows’ and funerary rites and ritual of cremation. Proc Prehistoric Society 63.
AARG: list of members: 1998 45
List of Contributors 52

AARGnews 15 (1997,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Cathy Stoertz 5
AARG aerial photograph competition 6
For sale: Ancient Landscapes Of The Yorkshire Wolds by Catherine Stoertz 7
Forthcoming event 8
British Archaeological Reports 8
Harold Wingham: pioneer aerial photographer by Geoff Hall 9
New films from Kodak by Rog Palmer 12
‘Flying too close to the sun?’ : air photography and GIS by Rebecca Moloney 13
Luftwaffe material in the National Monuments Record of Scotland by Kevin McLaren 15
Norton: the first interrupted ditch enclosure in Wales? by Toby Driver 17
Europe from the ground by Rog Palmer 20
On the archaeological use of vertical photographs by Michael Doneus 23
Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology: conference review by Anthony Crawshaw 28
1.000.000 km2 KVR-lOOO Russian satellite imagery for 49.95 DM? by Peter Haupt 31
It may not be done well … but it could be the best that is available by Martin J F Fowler 33

Books of interest? Reviews and mentions: 36
W S Warner, R W Graham and R E Read. Small Format Aerial Photography.
Martin Gojda. Aerial Archaeology in Bohemia.
D R Wilson. The Care and Storage of Photographs : recommendations for good practice.
Peter Crew and Chris Musson. Snowdonia from the Air. Patterns in the landscape.
Robert K Vincent. Fundamentals of Geological and Environmental Remote Sensing.
Christopher Tolan-Smith. Landscape Archaeology in Tyneside.
(ed) Robert Van de Noort and Stephen Ellis. Wetland Heritage of the Humberhead Levels : an archaeological survey.
Derek Edwards (photog) and Peter Wade-Martins (ed). Norfolk from the Air: volume 1.
List of Contributors 43

AARGnews 14 (1997,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Cathy Stoertz 5
Honorary secretary’s report by Toby Driver 6
AARG 1997 7
Derrick Riley bursary for aerial archaeology 7
Forthcoming events 8
Thirty years in the air: the thirtieth anniversary of the first aerial reconnaissance by RCHME by Roger Featherstone 9
Ilford Professional Delta 100 – a note by Pete Horne and Dave MacLeod 10
Bohemia: a long-term grant awarded to the aerial project by Martin Gojda 11
The development of aerial photography in New Zealand archaeology (part II) by Kevin L. Jones 13
The Wainway Channel: aerial photographic evidence of land reclamation by Alison Deegan 23
Gleanings from Otto by Otto Braasch (editorially compiled) 26
Who’s afraid of morphological analysis? by Samantha D. Walker 27
Computer assisted classification from aerial photographs by Sam Redfern 33
New versions of AERIAL 38
Satellite remote sensing and archaeological survey on the Euphrates by Anthony Comfort 39
Declassified intelligence satellite photographs – an update by Martin J F Fowler 47
Bibliographic research on aerial archaeology and archaeological prospection by Jörg W. E. Fassbinder and Robert H. Hetu 49
RCHME grants for regional flying 1996/97 by Roger Featherstone 51
Books of interest? Reviews and comments 52
Sites of interest? surfed by Michael Doneus 56
More World War II photographs? 58
Letter 59
List of Contributors 60

AARGnews 13 (1996,2)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Marilyn Brown 4
Air archaeology training project in Hungary 1996: statistics compiled by Cathy Stoertz 5
The development of aerial photography in New Zealand archaeology by Kevin L. Jones 7
The combined method of aerial reconnaissance and surface collection by Martin Gojda 14
More on Technical Pan by Rog Palmer 20
Thoughts on hearing the first cuckoo of Spring: a personal response to bits of AARGnews 12 by Cathy Stoertz 21
AARG conversation N° 2, part 2: John Hampton and Rog Palmer: 30 January 1996 23
Declassified intelligence satellite photographs by Martin J F Fowler 30
Aerial archaeology in Japan: a personally-experienced overview by Martin Gojda 36
Ring ditches and fungus rings in the 17th century by David R Wilson 42
The small cropmark debate? by Robert H Bewley 49
Books of interest? 50
List of Contributors 54

AARGnews 12 (1996,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Marilyn Brown 6
Air archaeology training project in Hungary 1996 by Robert Bewley and Otto Braasch 7
Derrick Riley Bursary for aerial archaeology 9
Derrick Riley notes by Anthony Crawshaw 9
News from Europe information from Otto Braasch 10
Aerial archaeology in the Middle East by David Kennedy 11
Aerial reconnaissance and fieldwalking survey: British and Polish reality by Wlodzimierz Raczkowski 16
North Nottinghamshire field systems – a landscape overview by Alison Deegan 18
AARG 1996 24
Mapping in Scotland: the RCAHMS transcription programme by Rebecca Moloney 25
Another member of the AERIAL software family by John G B Haigh 26
The earliest record of frost marks and crop marks by Anthony Crawshaw 34
The great crop mark crisis by Rog Palmer 35
AARG conversation N° 2, part 1: John Hampton and Rog Palmer: 30 January 1996 36
The Remote Sensing Society: archaeology: special interest group by Rog Palmer 43
Reviews: 44
Welfare, H and Swan, V. Roman Camps in England:the field archaeology (John Samuels)
Alvisi, G. La fotografia aerea nell’ indagine archeologica (David Wilson)
List of Contributors 46

AARGnews 11 (1995,2)

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Chairman’s Piece by Marilyn Brown…5
AARG Database of Members by Jo Elsworth…7
Stonehenge from 230 Kilometres by Martin J F Fowler and Helen Curtis…8
Vertical Photography and Inter-tidal Archaeology by Davie Strachan…17
Thoughts on Mapping by Rog Palmer…21
Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, Air Photography Unit:
Regional Reconnaissance Grants by Roger Featherstone…25
High Resolution Russian Satellite Imagery by Martin J F Fowler…28
Trying Kodak Technical Pan by Rog Palmer…33
AARGMART: Wanted and For Sale…36
Books of Interest?…37
Author index to AARGnews 1-10…39
List of Contributors…43
Notes for Contributors…44

AARGnews 10 (1995,1)

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Chairman’s Piece by Marilyn Brown…5
Forthcoming conferences (including AARG 1995)…6
Detection of Archaeological Features on Multispectral Satellite Imagery by Martin Fowler…7
The Future of the CBA Aerial Archaeology Committee by Rog Palmer and Marilyn Brown…15
AARG subscriptions…16
Some Few Remarks on the British Diversified View of Aerial Archaeology by Martin Gojda…17
Oblique Aerial Photography: films by Anthony Crawshaw…23
Problems and Potentials of Coastal Reconnaissance in Essex by D Strachan…28
Aerial Photography in Scandinavia…36
AARGMART: Wanted and For Sale…38
Books of Interest?…39
List of Contributors…40
Notes for Contributors…end cover

AARGnews 9 (1994,2)

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Editorial … 3
The Derrick Riley Fund for Studies in Aerial Archaeology … 5
Chairman’s Piece by Marilyn Brown … 6
Instructions for Operating P14 Cameras by Sqn. Ldr. D. J. Munro RAF (retd.) … 7
Ground Cover Mapping from Multispectral Satellite Imagery by Martin Fowler … 11
Pig Alignments – a New Class of Monument by Anthony Crawshaw … 20
The Challenge: Defining Aerial Archaeology by Bob Bewley … 21
Aerial Archaeology: the View from a small Continental Country by Martin Gojda … 23
AARG Conversation No 1: James Pickering and Rog Palmer: 9 August 1994 … 25
AARG 1993 – Oblique Aerial Photography: filters and things in front of the lens by Anthony Crawshaw … 34
Bits and Pieces gathered by Rog Palmer … 36
Managing the Archaeological Resource ‘Beyond the Ditch’: a curator’s view on aerial photography by Bob Sydes … 39
Who Needs a Specialist..? by Rog Palmer … 42
Royal Commisssion on the Historical Monuments of England, Air Photography Unit: Grants for Aerial Reconnaissance 1994/95 by Roger Featherstone … 44
Books of Interest? … 46
List of Contributors … 50
Notes for Contributors … end cover

AARGnews 8 (1994,1)

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Editorial … 3
Chairman’s Piece by Marilyn Brown … 6
New Journal : Archaeological Prospection … 7
Aerial Photography – present techniques and future aspirations by Chris Cox … 8
AARG1993 – Oblique Aerial Photography – Cameras by Anthony Crawshaw … 13
AARG Annual Meeting 1994 … 18
Tiptoe through the Cropmarks, Squelch through the Fens – but what next..? by Rog Palmer … 19
3-D Still Video Images by Anthony Crawshaw … 24
RCHME Closes Down! … 25
Wazzat? Number 2 – not the answer! by Anthony Crawshaw … 26
‘Aerial Archaeology’. What? by Rog Palmer … 27
Books of interest? … 30
Register of New Members (1993-1994) … 32
List of Contributors … 34
Notes for Contributors … 35

AARGnews 7 (1993,2)

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Editorial … 3

Chairman’s Piece by Bob Bewley … 6
Aerial Archaeology in Bohemia by Martin Gojda … 8

A Flight in Poland by Anthony Crawshaw … 11
Photography with a Tethered Blimp by Geoffrey D Summers … 12
Remote Sensing and Archaeology by Rog Palmer … 18
Clues about Cropmark Formation by Anthony Crawshaw … 20
A new issue of AERIAL – Version 4.20 by John G B Haigh … 22
RECTIFY: a program package for the rectification and interpretation of aerial archaeological photos by J Leckebusch … 26
Towards the rectification of digital images by John G B Haigh and Stanley S Ipson … 27
Technical News by Rog Palmer
Digital photogrammetry … 32

PC drawing packages – continued … 32
NAPLIB Directory of Aerial Photographic Collections in the UK 1993 … 34
Ann Clark (ed), Excavations at Mucking, vol 1: the site atlas (by David Wilson) … 35
Books of interest? … 38
List of Contributors … 41
Notes for Contributors … 42

AARGnews 6 (1993,1)

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Editorial 3
Chairman’s Piece by Bob Bewley 6
Some thoughts on Field Archaeology by David Wilson 7
Air Photography and Sites and Monuments Records: some observations by Neil Lang 10
Archaeological Interpretation and Rectification of Aerial Photographs. A short course at Bradford 13
Archéologie Aérienne Colloque International: two comments by un égout 14 by Charles Leva 16
Technical News by Rog Palmer
Ordnance Survey’s Superplan 18PhotoGIS 18PC drawing packages – a query 18
Ordnance Survey vertical photographs 19
Contour surveys 19
Diploma and MPhil in Aerial Photography. A new course. 20
Cropmark Discoveries in the River Barrow Valley, Ireland 1989-1991 by Gillian Barrett 21
Aerial Archaeology in Shetland: the South Nesting Palaeolandscape Project by Val Turner and Chris Cox 29
Looking Down on Amarna by Gwil Owen 33
Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, Air Photography Unit: grants for aerial reconnaissance 1993/4 by Roger Featherstone 38
Wazzat? Number 2 by Vikki Fenner 41
Wazzat? Answer to Number 1 … 42
Books of interest? 43
Stereo Airphoto Training at CUCAP by Bud Young 44
List of Contributors 45
Notes for Contributors 46

AARGnews 5 (1992,2)

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Editorial 3 
Chairman’s Piece by Bob Bewley 4 
Letter from the Continent by Otto Braasch
Aerial Archaeology in Israel 1990-92 by Derrick Riley 7 
Using AERIAL 4.1 by Rog Palmer
Problems of Interpretation by Anthony Crawshaw 18 
Crop circles by Anon 19 
Real Interpretation by J Pickering 20
Technical News by Rog Palmer
Logitech’s FOTOMAN digital camera; 22 
DIGIPEN: a cursor-like-mouse; 23 
Photo-CD systems – again; 23 
Kodak Digital Camera Systems; 24 
Kodak professional film scanners 25
Wazzat? Number 1 by Anthony Crawshaw 26 
RCHME NLAP: new express services 27
Aerofilms Guides: 28
Iain Thomson, London;

John Godfrey, The South Downs Way;
Des Hannigan, The South Devon Coast Path;
Ted Fryer, The Cotswold Way
N M Sharples, Maiden Castle: excavations and field survey 1985-6 29 
P L Everson, C C Taylor and C J Dunn, Change and Continuity: rural settlement in north-west Lincolnshire 31
Books of Interest ? 32 
Register of Current Members – 1992, part 2 compiled by Vikki Fenner 33 
List of Contributors 37 
Notes for Contributors 38

AARGnews 4 (1992,1)

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Editorial 3 
Chairman’s Piece by Bob Bewley 5 
AARG meeting September 1992 – 6
Archaeology in Northern Ireland by Brian Williams 8 
Aerial Photography Advisory Service 11 
Aviation Cameras 1920(±): extracts from a Thornton-Pickard catalogue 12 
Photographing Crop Circles by David Wilson 16 
Problems of Interpretation by Rog Palmer 20 
Summer School, Cranfield 21 
Luftbildarchäologie in Hamm Bundesrepublik Deutschland by Wolfram Letzner 22 
Seeing the Wood Despite the Trees by Dave MacLeod 30 
Photo-CD Systems by Rog Palmer 32 
The Interpreter’s Lot – 1 by Rog Palmer 33 
‘Mapping England’ by Bob Bewley 34
Harvey Lloyd, Aerial Photography: professional techniques and commercial applications 35 
Maurice Marsac, Inventaire archéologique par photographie aérienne des abords du Golfe des Pictons 35
Books of Interest ? 37 
Register of Current Members – 1992, part 1 compiled by Vikki Fenner 38 
List of Contributors 41 
Backword 42 
Notes for Contributors 43

AARGnews 3 (1991,2)

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Editorial 3 
Chairman’s Piece: who’s next for the hot-seat? by Chris Musson 5
The Classification of Sites Discovered through Aerial Photography: Why bother by Bill Startin 7 
Real Archaeology or Misuderstanding ‘MORPH’? by Robert Bewley 9 
The Classification Game by Pete Horne and Dave MacLeod 12 
Crawshaw’s News by Anthony Crawshaw 18 
Speak Softly and Carry a Big Roller: Crop Circle Notes by Martin Hempstead 19 
An Airship Trip by Robert Bewley 25 
Levels of Technology for Digitised Images in Aerial Archaeology by John G B Haigh 28 
The AERIAL program, Version 4.1 by John G B Haigh 31 
Recent Enhancements to Photonet by Roger Harris 34 
Report on the Aerial Reconnaissance for England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and Eire in 1990/91 compiled by Robert Bewley 38
Aerofilms, The Lake District from the Air 42 
RCHME, The National Monuments Record: a guide to the archive 43 
H C Bowen, The Archaeology of Bokerley Dyke: Inventory 44 
C Renfrew and P Bahn, Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice 45
Books of Interest? 47 
List of Contributors 48 
Notes for Contributors 49

AARGnews 2 (1991,1)

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Chairman’s Piece: an Italian Adventure by Chris Musson 4 
Using the Microlight Aircraft for Archaeological Air Photography by Ben Robinson 6 
Is your Negative File PVC ? by Anthony Crawshaw
Reconnaissance and Post-reconnaissance in Ireland: 1989 and 1990 – 10 
Continued Aerial Vomits: responses and suggestions by Chris Cox 12 
Unterstammheim-Äpelhusen, a Deserted Village in the Northern part of the Canton of Zurich: first results of our aerial photography project by Patrick Nagy 15 
Developer Funded Aerial Archaeology: the north west ethylene pipeline by Chris Cox 24 
Information Page: 1) Crop Circles, 2) Amiens 1992, 3) Air Reconnaissance in Roman Britain 1985-90 – 29 
Starfish Sites by Anthony Crawshaw 30 
Wartime Map References by Anthony Crawshaw 31 
Approaches to Classification by Rog Palmer 32 
The Purpose of Crop Mark Analysis by Richard Hingley 38 
Towards ‘Understanding’: the next steps? by J N Hampton 44
H C Bowen, The Archaeology of Bokerley Dyke …. 48 
Ch. Leva (ed), Aerial Photography and Geophysical Prospecting in Archaeology 49 
List of Contributors 50 
Notes for Contributors 51

AARGnews 1 (1990,1)

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Editorial 3 
‘Chairman’s Piece’ by Chris Musson 4 
NAPLIB Symposium 6 
CBA Aerial Archaeology Committee by D. R. Wilson. 7 
University of Cambridge, Committee for Aerial Photography by D. R. Wilson 8 
Air Photo Services by Chris Cox and Rog Palmer 9 
Roman logistic support systems along the Lippe river in Westphalia by A-M. Martin 10 
Aerial vomits: causes, effects and solutions? by Chris Cox 21 
Air reconnaissance in Roman Britain 1985 – 90 by G. S. Maxwell and D. R. Wilson 22 
National Association of Aerial Photographic Libraries (NAPLIB) by D. R. Wilson 23 
Bacon’s Farm, Upwell, Cambridgeshire: a Roman linear ‘village’ by Rog Palmer 24 
Freelance aerial archaeology: a personal viewpoint by Chris Cox 27 
Aerial photography and exemptions from the ‘Air Navigation Order 1985’ by Bob Bewley 30 
Wartime reminiscences by Derrick Riley 35 
Observations on the species Aerial by Anon 42 
List of contributors 43 
Notes for contributors 44

Occasional Publications

Occasional Publication No. 7

Conflict Landscapes and Archaeology from Above
Stichelbaut, B., - Cowley, D., (eds.) 2016
You can order this book at the Routledge website - click on the image!

The study of conflict archaeology has developed rapidly over the last decade, fuelled in equal measure by technological advances and creative analytical frameworks. Nowhere is this truer than in the inter-disciplinary fields of archaeological practice that combine traditional sources such as historical photographs and maps with 3D digital topographic data from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and large scale geophysical prospection. For twentieth-century conflict landscapes and their surviving archaeological remains, these developments have encouraged a shift from a site oriented approach towards landscape-scaled research. This volume brings together an wide range of perspectives, setting traditional approaches that draw on historical and contemporary aerial photographs alongside cutting-edge prospection techniques, cross-disciplinary analyses and innovative methods of presenting this material to audiences. Essays from a range of disciplines (archaeology, history, geography, heritage and museum studies) studying conflict landscapes across the globe throughout the twentieth century, all draw on aerial and landscape perspectives to past conflicts and their legacy and the complex issues for heritage management. Organized in four parts, the first three sections take a broadly chronological approach, exploring the use of aerial evidence to expand our understanding of the two World Wars and the Cold War. The final section explores ways that the aerial perspective can be utilized to represent historical landscapes to a wide audience. With case studies ranging from the Western Front to the Cold War, Ireland to Russia, this volume demonstrates how an aerial perspective can both support and challenge traditional archaeological and historical analysis, providing an innovative new means of engaging with the material culture of conflict and commemoration.

Occasional Publication No. 6

Recovering Lost Landscapes

Ivaniševic, V., – Veljanovski, T., – Cowley, D., – Kiarszys, G., – Bugarski, I., Institute of Belgrade, 2015.

From the Introduction:

“The scale of landscape transformation over the last century, within Europe and globally, has been great. War, urban expansion, land use and land cover change and construction projects, amongst other activities and processes, have heavily altered our landscapes, destroying or covering up ancient monuments and the historic environment. The resulting loss of evidence from which to understand the past has been great, and sources that give us an insight into earlier conditions can be invaluable. So-called ‘historic’ aerial imagery is a privileged source for documenting and understanding these lost landscapes since it provides information that cannot be found anywhere else. To the historic aerial perspective can be added complementary sources such as historic cartography, modern aerial photographs and new technology such as Airborne Laser Scanning, recognizing that integrated approaches are key to more comprehensive interpretations of landscape processes. The uses of historic aerial photographs, amongst a range of available sources, to better understand and manage dynamic landscapes are at the heart of this volume, with a particular focus on areas that have undergone dramatic change over the last century. Case studies from across Europe present varying approaches to interpretation drawing on current practice from a range of different landscapes. Technical challenges are also discussed, for example in extracting 3D topographical data from historic aerial imagery or integrating multiple sources of information, and pointers to future directions. Here, the synergies of ‘old’ data and new technology with the rapid developments in soft-bench photogrammetry open up new avenues for integrated cross-disciplinary landscape investigation. Such interdisciplinarity is also reflected in the archaeological, geographical and historical perspectives that authors draw into discussions that extend to social context, ideology, political frameworks and perception. This recognises the contingent nature of landscape understanding, and the interwoven dynamics of landscape form, past and present perception and our own engagement.
While multiple sources of information and perspectives are represented in this volume, the unique insights that historic aerial photographs and the aerial perspective can give is a consistent theme throughout. Thus, it will be no surprise that varying accessibility and availability of imagery is touched on by many authors.

The application of an aerial perspective can vary between countries depending on intellectual or academic traditions, but the availability of imagery and ease of access to archives to a large degree define whether or not these underused sources of knowledge can be utilised effectively.”

Occasional Publication No. 5

Interpreting Archaeological Topography: 3D data, visualisation and observation

Opitz, R. S., – Cowley, D. C., Oxford, 2013.

Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), or lidar, is an enormously important innovation for data collection and interpretation in archaeology. The application of archaeological 3D data deriving from sources including ALS, close-range photogrammetry and terrestrial and photogrammetric scanners has grown exponentially over the last decade. Such data present numerous possibilities and challenges, from ensuring that applications remain archaeologically relevant, to developing practices that integrate the manipulation and interrogation of complex digital datasets with the skills of archaeological observation and interpretation. This volume addresses the implications of multi-scaled topographic data for contemporary archaeological practice in a rapidly developing field, drawing on examples of ongoing projects and reflections on best practice.Twenty papers from across Europe explore the implications of these digital 3D datasets for the recording and interpretation of archaeological topography, whether at the landscape, site or artefact scale. The papers illustrate the variety of ways in which we engage with archaeological topography through 3D data, from discussions of its role in landscape archaeology, to issues of context and integration, and to the methodological challenges of processing, visualisation and manipulation. Critical reflection on developing practice and implications for cultural resource management and research contextualize the case studies and applications, illustrating the diverse and evolving roles played by multi-scalar topographic data in contemporary archaeology.

Occasional Publication No. 4

Flights into the Past. Aerial photography, photo interpretation and mapping for archaeology

Musson, C., – Palmer, R., – Campana, S., 2013.

ArcLand eBook, available free of charge from the Apple iBook Store and also as PDF (click the image), subject to copyright.

Aerial archaeology is one of the major sources of information for landscapes archaeologists, seeking for new sites and for the understanding of past and present landscapes as a result of human-environment interaction. The volume gives a broad overview about the history, the basic concepts and techniques of aerial photography for archaeological purposes. It describes the way valuable information is derived from aerial images and how this is used for mapping and interpretation. Numerous examples from fieldwork richly illustrate these aspects. But many of the photos shown in this book do not simply illustrate the text, many of them also are eye-catching artworks which show fascinating landscapes in a way that only the view from above can provide!
This book, originally published 2005 in Italian (“In Volo nel Passato: aerofotografia e cartografia archeologica”) was inspired by the work of some of the leading European aerial archaeologists who met in Siena 2001 to share their knowledge with students and young researchers in an aerial archaeology training school. Published by the Aerial Archaeology Research Group (Occasional Publication No 4) in partnership with the 
ArchaeoLandscapes Europe (ArcLand) Project of the Culture 2007-2013 Programme of the European Union.

You can download the Occasional Publication No. 4 in the following versions:

Occasional Publication No. 3

Remote Sensing for Archaeological Heritage Management

EAC Occasional Paper 5/Occasional Publication of the Aerial Archaeology Research Group No. 3. – Cowley, D.C., (ed.), 2011.

Remote sensing is one of the main foundations of archaeological data, under pinning knowledge and understanding of the historic environment. The volume, arising from a symposium organised by the Europae Archaeologiae Consilium (EAC) and the Aerial Archaeology Research Group (AARG), provides up to date expert statements on the methodologies, achievements and potential of remote sensing with a particular focus on archaeological heritage management.
You can find more information in the flyer of the book!

Occasional Publication No. 2

Landscapes through the lens:

aerial photographs and historic environment
Cowley, D.C., Standring, R.A. and Abicht, M.J. (eds), Oxford, 2010.

You can download the contents by clicking on the image!

This volume presents the rich, but under-utilised, archives of aerial imagery for the exploration and management of cultural heritage and historic environment. A remarkable resource for archaeologists and all with an interest in landscapes, traditional aerial photographs and satellite images spanning the second half of the 20th century provide an unrivalled means of documenting and understanding change and informing the study of the past. Case studies, written by experts in their fields, illustrate the applications of this imagery across a wide range of heritage issues, from prehistoric cultivation and settlement patterns, to the impact of recent landscape change. Contemporary environmental and land use issues are also dealt with, in a volume that will be of interest to archaeologists, historians, geographers and those in related disciplines.

Occasional Publication No. 1

Education in Aerial Remote Sensing for Archaeology:

collected papers and report of the AARG/EAC Working Party on Aerial Archaeology. Occasional Publication of the Aerial Archaeology Research Group No. 1.
Cowley, D. and Palmer, R., 2009.

You can download the report by clicking on the image!

AARG Occasional Publication Series No 1 was published in April 2009. It focuses on Education in Aerial Remote Sensing for Archaeology and includes the draft report of the AARG/EAC Working Group on Education, which is available for comment until the end of July 2009. The publication also has papers on the general theme of education that should be of interest to many.

Welcome to our Corner about Aerial Archaeology!

Here you can find A Short Introduction to Aerial ArchaeologyA Beginner’s Reading List, Papers and Abstracts, Useful Links connected to Aerial Archaeology, and accounts of several projects concerning Aerial Archaeology around the World

A Short Introduction to Aerial Archaeology

More archaeological features have been found worldwide through aerial photography than by any other means of survey. The method also provides means of examining context and larger areas of land than through the traditional site-based focus. Aerial photographs of archaeological features in many parts of the world show there to have been occupation of much of the land from Neolithic times onwards. In some places this is represented by apparently isolated sites, in others there are networks of tracks, fields and settlements that show there to have been a higher local population than at present. The text below first outlines a brief history of archaeological uses and taking of aerial photographs, followed by descriptions of types of aerial images and mapping methods, and ends with references to publications indicated.

A brief history

Archaeologists had been working with existing aerial photographs during and immediately after the First World War, studying sites and landscapes in Macedonia, Romania (Roman limes), Mesopotamia and deserts of the Near East. For example, in 1919, in a paper titled ‘Air photography in archaeology’, Lieutenant-Colonel G.A. Beazeley1Beazeley, G.A., 1919. Air Photography in Archaeology. Geographical Journal 53, 331-335. published his discovery of an ancient city on the Tigris as a result of aerial survey for mapping. In a different landscape, with less imposing remains, O.G.S. Crawford had been working with photographs taken by the Royal Air Force to map areas of upstanding archaeological landscapes in southern England. His results were published in an Ordnance Survey Professional Paper (1924)2Crawford, O.G.S., 1924. Air Survey and Archaeology. Ordnance Survey Professional Papers 7. London. that included analytical comments about aerial photographs and maps of extensive areas. Also in that book was a summary of Crawford’s work on part of the Stonehenge Avenue that was plough-levelled but had been visible as differential crop growth in RAF photographs taken in 1921. Other photographs taken at around the same time showed indications of buried archaeological features through their effect on cereal crops and Crawford was able to identify banks and ditched through this proxy. He named them ‘crop sites’ or ‘crop marks’ and these are the phenomena that led to the huge success of aerial observation for archaeology in temperate lands in the succeeding 100 years.

Crawford himself undertook an airborne project with Alexander Keiller in 1924, when they set out to photograph many upstanding sites in central-southern England (Wessex). A selection of their aerial photographs illustrated their book (1928)3Crawford, O G S and Keiller, A, 1928. Wessex from the Air, Oxford.that contained detailed analytical field surveys of those sites and was a first display of the ability of specifically-targeted aerial images to illustrate past features. At a similar date, Antoine Poidebard was flying and photographing to seek evidence of Roman activity in Syria and was paralleling Crawford’s results in a very different environment4Poidebard, A., 1934. La trace de Rome dans le Désert de Syrie. Le limes de Trajan à la conquète arabe. Recherches aériennes, 1925–1932. Paris: Paul Geuthner.. Further aerial photography in the Near East was undertaken by Erich Schmidt (1940)5Schmidt, E.F., 1940. Flights over ancient cities of Iran. Oriental Institute: Chicago. and sponsored by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago on whose web site Schmidt’s photographs can be seen.

Between the two World Wars, the journal Antiquity, founded by Crawford in 1927, promoted uses of aerial photographs in a world-wide scope in almost every issue. Through his contacts in Britain, Crawford was able to ensure that many of the sites photographed by the RAF were examined on the ground, often through excavation. This particular gain in knowledge on British sites is one key that may have been responsible for the fact that aerial evidence is accepted as valid by itself there but held in some suspicion in other countries. By the late 1920s, Crawford had an arrangement with the RAF that pilots would target archaeological sites during navigation exercises and that the photographs would be passed to him as Archaeology Officer for the Ordnance Survey. This enabled him to build up what is now known as the Crawford Collection, held now in British national collections.

Still in Britain, in 1933, Major Allen, inspired by one of Crawford’s books, made his own cameras and began flying and photographing sites in the Thames Valley (and later other places). His aim, he wrote, was to discover sites – and this same aim has been one of the driving forces behind many later aerial photographers. Allen used some of his discoveries to create two maps of Thames valley locations which were published in 19386Allen, G.W.G., 1938. Marks seen from the air in crops near Dorchester, Oxoniensia 3, 169-171. and 19407Allen, G.W.G., 1940. Cropmarks seen from the air, Northfield Farm, Long Wittenham, Berks, Oxoniensia 5, 164-165.. His photographs captured the rural landscape when it looked ‘soft’, before the advent of industrialised farming and they should be valued for this as well as for their archaeological content. Copies of his photographs can be seen on Ashmolean Museum’s website.

The advent of World War Two halted further exploration and development in aerial work for almost everybody, but with two exceptions. In England, Derrick Riley, who was able to use some of his RAF test flights to observe, record and sometimes photographs sites close to his airfield bases. Riley published five papers during or just after the war, one of which laid down the basic rules and definitions about how sites were visible from above8Riley, D.N. 1946. The technique of air-archaeology. Archaeol J 101, 1-16.. He then faded from the aerial scene until the 1970s. Immediately after the end of the war, John Bradford and Peter Williams-Hunt, both archaeologists and serving photographic intelligence officers in Apulia, Italy, undertook their own aerial survey (using RAF aircraft and equipment) of a considerable area of the Tavoliere which was dense in sites from Neolithic to Roman times. Bradford was responsible for most of the publication as Williams-Hunt had moved to SE Asia where he retained (and published) his aerial interests. Bradford’s work culminated in a book (1957)9Bradford, J.S.P., 1957. Ancient Landscapes: studies in field archaeology. Bell: London. that included theory, method and case studies relevant to using aerial photographs to examine ancient landscapes.

In 1948, Cambridge University appointed J.K.S. St Joseph as Curator of Aerial Photography. He had begun his aerial photographic work a few years earlier using RAF aircraft. His department remained active in aerial photography past his retirement, when he was succeeded by David Wilson, and by then had become CUCAP – Cambridge University Committee for (or Collection of) Aerial Photography – with its own aircraft and pilot. For almost twenty years, St Joseph was the only active aerial photographer in Britain with flights extending across Britain, Ireland and later to Northern France, Denmark and the Netherlands. St Joseph and Wilson published extensively in journals and through CUCAP’s own series of books, with Wilson producing a photo reading guide in 198210Wilson, D.R., 1982. Air Photo Interpretation for Archaeologists. Batsford, London..

From 1960 there was an increase in the number of archaeologists taking aerial photographs in parts of Europe among whom was Irwin Scollar (Rhine Valley in Germany, 1965)11Scollar, I. 1965. Archäologie aue der Luft. Arbitsergebnisse der Flugjahre 1960 un 1961 im Rheinland. Rheinland Verlag: Köln., Roger Agache (Picardy in France, 1975)12Agache, R. and Bréart, B., 1975. Atlas d’archéologie aérienne de Picardie. La Somme Protohistorique et Romaine. Société des antiquaires de Picardie, Amiens. and several others in France. The journal Antiquity, by then edited by Glyn Daniel, continued to publish notes on ‘aerial reconnaissance’ and included articles by Agache and, notably, a series of ‘recent results’ by St Joseph. The majority of published work from this period was of photographs and accompanying descriptive text, sometimes with a sketch to clarify the photographic information. Mapping, to combine information from several photographs to show extents of past landuse, was rare but the accumulation of photographs in parts of Britain enabled sketch-mapped studies to be made of small areas (eg RCHME 196013RCHME, 1960. A Matter of Time: an archaeological survey of the river gravels of England. London., Webster and Hobley 196514Webster, G. and Hobley, B., 1965. Aerial reconnaissance over the Warwickshire Avon. Archaeol J 121, 1-22.). More extensive sketch mapping from aerial photographs, combined with field walking, derived from a study of the Roman fenland in England (Phillips 1970)15Phillips, C.W. (ed), 1970. The Fenland in Roman Times. Roy Geog Soc Res Ser 5.. That project began before World War Two and was continued afterwards, making use of a 1:10,000 scale post-war aerial survey and targeted photographs taken by St Joseph. Mapping from existing photographs was never as popular as taking pictures but was revived by John Hampton, who, in 1965, had established the Air Photographs Unit within the English Royal Commission (Hampton 1989)16Hampton, J.N., 1989. The Air Photography Unit of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England 1965-1985. In D. Kennedy (ed) Into the Sun: essays in air photography in honour of Derrick Riley, 13-28. Sheffield: J R Collis.. For Hampton, aerial photographs were sources of information that needed to be interpreted and accurately mapped to maximise our understanding of their archaeological content. However, until the advent of computer transformation (Palmer 1977)17Palmer, R., 1977. A computer method for transcribing information graphically from oblique aerial photographs to maps. J Archaeological Science 4, 283-290., accurate mapping by hand was a slow and tedious process.

The 1970s saw a continued increase in numbers of active aerial photographers, including the beginning of work in Warsaw Pact countries that had their particular problems of secrecy and censorship. An example is the work in Dobrogea, Romania by Alexandru Simion Ştefan that was discussed in many publications and summarised in 198318Ştefan, A-S., 1983. Cercetări aerofotografice în anni 1978-1980. Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice – a XV-a sesiune anuală de rapoarte, Muzeul Judeţean Braşov – 1981, 15, 178-192.. This lone work contrasts with the activity in Britain and France from the mid-1970s and through the 1980s when more people were active in the air than at any time before or since. Dry summers encouraged some of this activity, funding was organised, aviation laws were less restrictive than in later years and archaeologists liked to discover new sites. Fortunately, at least in Britain, most of the resulting photographs were copied to national archives and became available for archaeological projects. One of the people active above Britain was Derrick Riley, last heard of just after World War Two, who returned to archaeology and the aerial view to fill his retirement years. Riley had identified a research area in the English midlands which had previously been a blank on the map but within which he identified, photographed and mapped systems of ‘brickwork fields’ and their accompanying farmsteads (1980)19Riley, D.N., 1980. Early Landscape from the Air. Collis: Sheffield.. Riley extended his aerial activity to Jordan (with David Kennedy, 1990)20Kennedy, D and Riley D, 1990. Rome’s Desert Frontier from the Air. Batsford, London and Israel, edited and published (in 1984)21Allen, G.W.G. (ed D.N. Riley) 1984. Discovery from the Air. Aerial Archaeology 10. a manuscript written by Major Allen in the 1930s, wrote his own Air Photography and Archaeology (1987)22Riley, D.N., 1987. Air Photography and Archaeology. Duckworth: London. and encouraged the next generation through his teaching at Sheffield University. When mapping the brickwork fields, Riley had made some use of computer mapping, but Rog Palmer’s publication of the 400 sq km of the Danebury environs in 198423Palmer, R., 1984. Danebury: an aerial photographic interpretation of its environs. RCHM Sup Series 6. was almost entirely based on computer-transformed interpretation. A later publication by Cathy Stoertz (1997)24Stoertz, C., 1997. Ancient landscapes of the Yorkshire Wolds, RCHME, Swindon. achieved the pinnacle of mapping to depict and area of some 1350 sq km and analyse its archaeological content.

The 1980s saw new beginnings in aerial work in Europe that was led and encouraged by Otto Braasch from Germany who had retired from the Luftwaffe and started his second career as an aerial photographer in 1980. Braasch’s early work covered those German states who paid for his survey flights but, with the end of the Cold War, his interests extended to those previously closed countries where aerial work had been forbidden or very difficult. There, he saw his mission to encourage archaeologists to appreciate the value of the aerial view and to use aerial photographs as part of their research projects. That we now have people active in many European countries is largely due to Braasch’s encouragement and to training schools and workshops that were initially begun by him after the first international symposium in Kleinmachnow, Germany, in 1994 (Kunow 1995)25Kunow, J., (ed), 1995. Luftbildarchäologie in Ost- und Mitteleuropa (Aerial Archaeology in Eastern and Central Europe). Forschungen zur Archäologie im Land Brandenburg 3. .

AARG also played an active part in teaching in many of the European workshops. Its first meeting had been in 1983 (Stoertz 2013)26Stoertz, C., 2013. Anniversary Reflections from a Founder Member. AARGnews 47, 8-12. and ten years later its membership included a mixture of aerial photographers, photo interpreters and interested collaborators. The first European workshop was held in Kiliti, Hungary, in 1996 with Braasch organising the airborne aspects and AARG members teaching what became known as ‘ground school’. In terms of continuation of interest, that workshop was the most successful of any that were run in the next 20 years as most of its ‘students’ already held teaching posts or other official archaeology positions in their respective countries. It could be said that the networks generated by Braasch, AARG and the Kiliti workshop helped germinate aerial work in Hungary, Poland, Czechia, Slovenia, Estonia, and Lithuania. In Czechia, in particular, the work of Martin Gojda and his students continues to develop and extend uses of aerial images, combining their information with fieldwork and documentary evidence to produce archaeological narratives (eg. 201027Godja, M. a kolektiv, 2010. Studie k Dálkovému Průzkumu Archeologii (Studies in Remote Sensing for Archaeology). Pilzen.; 201128Gojda, M. and Trefny, M. (ed). 2011. Archeologie Krajiny pod Řípem (Archaeology in the Landscape around the Hill of Říp). Opomíjená Archeologie (Neglected Archaeology) 2. Dept of Archaeology: Pilsen.; 201329Godja, M., John, J., a kolektiv, 2013. Archeologie a letecké laserové skenování krajiny (Archaeology and airborne laser scanning of the landscape). Pilzen.).

By 2000 two things had changed – sources of high-resolution images now included those from some satellites and airborne laser scanning (ALS or lidar, which recorded topography at a level and precision previously undreamed of), and use of geographical information systems (GIS) were becoming commonplace as means of stacking and manipulating data, archaeological and otherwise. Satellite sources included the recently-released Cold War photographs taken by the Americans and Russians and much use was made of the easily-available US Corona material, especially to aid Near Eastern studies (eg Ur 200330Ur, J. A. 2003. CORONA Satellite Photography and Ancient Road Networks: A Northern Mesopotamian Case Study. Antiquity 77, 102-115.; 201331Ur, J. A. 2013. Spying on the Past: Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs and Near Eastern Landscapes. Near Eastern Archaeology 76, 28-36.; Hanson and Oltean 201332Hanson, W.S. and Oltean, I.A. (eds), 2013. Archaeology from Historical aerial and satellite archives. New York: Springer). Initial use of ALS tended to be at the ‘wow’ level, but within ten years publications were emerging from all parts of the world that included it as a primary source of evidence (Opitz and Cowley 2013)33Opitz, R.S, and Cowley, D. C. (eds), 2013. Interpreting Archaeological Topography: 3D data, visualisation and observation. Oxbow, Oxford.. Google Earth was initially released in 2001 and, along with Microsoft’s Bing, now provides a first view for anyone examining an area from above. Many countries include aerial and ALS layers in their national geoportal sites and these provide free access to a wealth of images that can help archaeological work. It must be noted, however, that there are many aerial images that are not on the internet and that proper study of any area may benefit from consulting these.

From 2010, use of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) was becoming more common in archaeological work. Their applications including recording excavations (in cases replacing the job that kites and balloons had performed) and specific targeted fields or monuments. Close-range photogrammetric software enabled the creation of 3D models and orthophotos from the original drone images and these can provide precision data about a site. Dry summer conditions over much of Europe in 2018 led to the discovery and recording of several new archaeological sites, among which the then-called ‘dronehenge’ in Ireland’s Boyne Valley was the most spectacular (AARGnews 57).

Aerial photography and its uses are not static, and AARG has encouraged several talks and discussions about method and theory which have resulted in a few publications. Among these, work by Wlodek Rączkowski (eg 1999)34Rączkowski, W., 1999. Power of image: some ideas on post-processual aerial archaeology. AARGnews 19, 10-14. and Martin Gojda (eg 2004)35Gojda, M., (ed) 2004. Ancient Landscape, Settlement Dynamics and Non-Destructive Archaeology: Czech research project 1997-2002. Academia: Prague. have been stimulating and two edited books have questioned why we do what we do (Brophy and Cowley 200536Brophy, K. and Cowley, D. (ed), 2005. From the Air: Understanding Aerial Archaeology. Tempus, Stroud.; Mills and Palmer 200737Mills, J. and Palmer, R. (ed), 2007. Populating Clay Landscapes. Tempus: Stroud.).

Types of aerial images and mapping methods

Aerial images are usually classified as either vertical – taken with a camera pointing directly at the ground – or oblique – which records the ground at any angle other than vertical – but for archaeological images, these basic classifications can be expanded.

Firstly, we should introduce the concept of stereo pairs which are overlapping images that enable a viewer to see a scene in 3D. There is, however, more value to use of stereoscopy than just the 3D view, as, for example, examination of a pair of prints will help an interpreter eliminate ‘sites’ that may be caused by processing marks or dust on sensors. The ability to see in stereo is recognized as an essential qualification for professional photo interpreters, therefore it shuold be taken as evidence of good airborne practice that we are provided with such images routinely and that photo interpretation is carried out routinely through examination in three dimensions (Palmer 2013)38Palmer, R., 2013. Stereo photography for airborne observers. AARGnews 47, 39-44..

Vertical photographs are usually taken using a camera that is fixed to an aircraft or satellite that flies a series of straight and parallel courses. Exposures can be set to provide images that overlap by 60% so that stereoscopic viewing can examine these and perceive height. This helps and adds confidence to photo interpretation. Modern images, taken specifically for use as a single layer in GIS are often taken a much smaller overlap and are of lesser value to the photo interpreter. Corona satellite photographs were taken to provide stereoscopic views which, because of image distortion caused by the panoramic cameras, may be better viewed after they have been georectified. Many of the current high-resolution satellites are able to provide stereoscopic images although the cost of these may be prohibitive for many archaeological projects. Typically, vertical images are taken to record an area of land and will show any and all archaeological features that were visible below the camera at that time. Thus, they record the ground in an unbiassed way.

Images in web sources such as Google Earth are a mixture of satellite images and aerial photographs. The accuracy of their position may vary and ought not to be assumed to be correct, especially in more rural areas, and height distortion is readily apparent when building facades can be seen. Most countries also have photographs of an earlier date and these can be a valuable source of information in parts of the world where development of mineral extraction has destroyed archaeological features. Examples include the survey of Britain that was flown by the RAF in the immediate post-war years and land photographed by the USAF in Spain, Italy, Brazil, Jordan, Japan and many other countries (Pérez et al 2014)39Pérez, J.A., Bascon, F.M. and Charro, M.C., 2014. Photogrammetric usage of 1956–57 USAF aerial photography of Spain. The Photogrammetric Record, 29/145, 108-124..

Oblique photographs are usually taken using a hand-held camera from an aircraft or by tilting an orbiting satellite to take off-nadir scenes. Airborne archaeologists favour this way of recording archaeological sites as the best viewpoint can be chosen to show detail or context. However, to photograph a site it has first to be noticed by an aerial observer and analysis has shown that aerial photographers are not as efficient as they think. Despite this, use of a single-engine aircraft and a hand-held camera remains the way that archaeologists record the ground, and in part this is necessary because of the short notice needed to fly at times when crops are responding to buried features and the weather is good. Oblique photographs are also more easily read by others and have formed the basis of many books. They can also be taken to be viewed as stereoscopic pairs to help their interpretation. Most archaeological oblique photographs are retained as paper prints, slides, or digital images in either national collections (in the UK) or in the museums or university departments of the people who have taken them.

ALS data for many parts of the world can be downloaded from geoportals or national agencies. Software has been written to enhance its uses for archaeological projects (Kokalj and Hesse 2017)40Kokalj, Ž. and Hesse, R., 2017. Airborne Laser Scanning Raster Data Visualization. A Guide to Good Practice. Ljubljana: Institute of Anthropological and Spatial Studies. Available at: https://iaps.zrc-sazu.si/en/publikacije/airborne-laser-scanning-raster-data-visualization-1#v and use of a GIS is essential for more than a static hill-shaded view.

Mapping from aerial images is the step in which those features that have been interpreted are located on to a base map (or orthophoto) to show their location. Mapping can be done from any type of image and can also be used to merge information from photographs taken on different dates. Sketch mapping is used to locate by eye those features and, with practise, can be sufficiently accurate when working at scales of about 1:10,000. Increased accuracy can be gained by generating a network of working lines between the same points on a map and photograph. These create an uneven graph-paper-like mesh which gives greater precision to mapping when transferring information from an aerial photograph. Irwin Scollar illustrated ways of doing this in a paper that also described his early computer method of transferring point information from a photograph to a map (1975)41Scollar, I., 1975. Transformation of extreme oblique aerial photographs to maps or plans by conventional means or by computer. In D.R. Wilson (ed) Aerial Reconnaissance for Archaeology. Counc Brit Archaeol Res Rep 12, 52-59.. Networks continue to be occasionally useful even in the computer age.

In the 1970s use of optical instruments to transfer information from photograph to map was tried by RCHME (Hampton 1989, 23)42Hampton, J.N., 1989. The Air Photography Unit of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England 1965-1985. In D. Kennedy (ed) Into the Sun: essays in air photography in honour of Derrick Riley, 13-28. Sheffield: J R Collis. but this was not easy with oblique photographs that provided the majority of archaeological information. Optical transfer was superseded by computer programs that initially were used to transcribe information graphically from interpretations of photographs (Haigh 1991)43Haigh, J.G.B., 1991. The AERIAL program, version 4.1, AARGnews 3, 31-33. and those in turn were replaced by methods that transformed digital images to match a map or other ground information (Haigh 199644Haigh, J.G.B., 1996. Another member of the AERIAL software family. AARGnews 12, 26-33.; Scollar 199845Scollar, I., 1998. AirPhoto – a WinNT/Win95 program for geometric processing of archaeological air photos. AARGnews 16, 37-38.). Since those early specialist programs, both written to deal particularly with the problems of oblique image transformation, modern GIS include packages for georectifcation of images that help build a layer of photographic data over which interpretations can be made.

There are other more-sophisticated programs for mapping, some of which include algorithms for creating orthophotos and 3D models from a high-density cover of images such as may be made from drones.

Mapping archaeological information is done for a purpose and this should decide the level of accuracy required and thus the choice of method to be used. Projects requiring accurate depiction of archaeological traces are likely to require line and polygon information that show ditches, banks, walls and possibly also select non-archaeological information. Maps of this kind form an ideal base for research into settlement patterns of an area and can also be sufficiently accurate to match with field-gathered information and to locate question-orientated excavation trenches. Less visually-informative mapping may be suitable for heritage management whose needs may be met in a GIS by enclosing archaeological features in a polygon and creating a written record in its attached metadata.

Agache, R. and Bréart, B., 1975. Atlas d’archéologie aérienne de Picardie. La Somme Protohistorique et Romaine. Société des antiquaires de Picardie, Amiens.

Allen, G.W.G., 1938. Marks seen from the air in crops near Dorchester, Oxoniensia 3, 169-171.

Allen, G.W.G., 1940. Cropmarks seen from the air, Northfield Farm, Long Wittenham, Berks, Oxoniensia 5, 164-165.

Allen, G.W.G. (ed D.N. Riley) 1984. Discovery from the Air. Aerial Archaeology 10.

Beazeley, G.A., 1919. Air Photography in Archaeology. Geographical Journal 53, 331-335.

Bradford, J.S.P., 1957. Ancient Landscapes: studies in field archaeology. Bell: London.

Brophy, K. and Cowley, D. (ed), 2005. From the Air: Understanding Aerial Archaeology. Tempus, Stroud.

Crawford, O.G.S., 1924. Air Survey and Archaeology. Ordnance Survey Professional Papers 7. London.

Crawford, O G S and Keiller, A, 1928. Wessex from the Air, Oxford.

Gojda, M., (ed) 2004. Ancient Landscape, Settlement Dynamics and Non-Destructive Archaeology: Czech research project 1997-2002. Academia: Prague.

Gojda, M. a kolektiv, 2010. Studie k Dálkovému Průzkumu Archeologii (Studies in Remote Sensing for Archaeology). Pilzen.

Gojda, M. and Trefny, M. (ed). 2011. Archeologie Krajiny pod Řípem (Archaeology in the Landscape around the Hill of Říp). Opomíjená Archeologie (Neglected Archaeology) 2. Dept of Archaeology: Pilsen.

Gojda, M., John, J., a kolektiv, 2013. Archeologie a letecké laserové skenování krajiny (Archaeology and airborne laser scanning of the landscape). Pilzen.

Haigh, J.G.B., 1991. The AERIAL program, version 4.1, AARGnews 3, 31-33.

Haigh, J.G.B., 1996. Another member of the AERIAL software family. AARGnews 12, 26-33.

Hampton, J.N., 1989. The Air Photography Unit of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England 1965-1985. In D. Kennedy (ed) Into the Sun: essays in air photography in honour of Derrick Riley, 13-28. Sheffield: J R Collis.

Hanson, W.S. and Oltean, I.A. (eds), 2013. Archaeology from Historical aerial and satellite archives. New York: Springer

Kennedy, D and Riley D, 1990. Rome’s Desert Frontier from the Air. Batsford, London

Kokalj, Ž. and Hesse, R., 2017. Airborne laser scanning raster data visualization: A Guide to Good Practice. Založba ZRC: Ljubljana.

Kunow, J., (ed), 1995. Luftbildarchäologie in Ost- und Mitteleuropa (Aerial Archaeology in Eastern and Central Europe). Forschungen zur Archäologie im Land Brandenburg 3.

Mills, J. and Palmer, R. (ed), 2007. Populating Clay Landscapes. Tempus: Stroud.

Opitz, R.S, and Cowley, D. C. (eds), 2013. Interpreting Archaeological Topography: 3D data, visualisation and observation. Oxbow, Oxford.

Palmer, R., 1977. A computer method for transcribing information graphically from oblique aerial photographs to maps. J Archaeological Science 4, 283-290.

Palmer, R., 1984. Danebury: an aerial photographic interpretation of its environs. RCHM Sup Series 6.

Palmer, R., 2013. Stereo photography for airborne observers. AARGnews 47, 39-44.

Pérez, J.A., Bascon, F.M. and Charro, M.C., 2014. Photogrammetric usage of 1956–57 USAF aerial photography of Spain. The Photogrammetric Record, 29/145, 108-124.

Phillips, C.W. (ed), 1970. The Fenland in Roman Times. Roy Geog Soc Res Ser 5.

Poidebard, A., 1934. La trace de Rome dans le Désert de Syrie. Le limes de Trajan à la conquète arabe. Recherches aériennes, 1925–1932. Paris: Paul Geuthner.

Rączkowski, W., 1999. Power of image: some ideas on post-processual aerial archaeology. AARGnews 19, 10-14.

RCHME, 1960. A Matter of Time: an archaeological survey of the river gravels of England. London.

Riley, D.N. 1946. The technique of air-archaeology. Archaeol J 101, 1-16.

Riley, D.N., 1980. Early Landscape from the Air. Collis: Sheffield.

Riley, D.N., 1987. Air Photography and Archaeology. Duckworth: London.

Schmidt, E.F., 1940. Flights over ancient cities of Iran. Oriental Institute: Chicago.

Scollar, I. 1965. Archäologie aue der Luft. Arbitsergebnisse der Flugjahre 1960 un 1961 im Rheinland. Rheinland Verlag: Köln.

Scollar, I., 1975. Transformation of extreme oblique aerial photographs to maps or plans by conventional means or by computer. In D.R. Wilson (ed) Aerial Reconnaissance for Archaeology. Counc Brit Archaeol Res Rep 12, 52-59.

Scollar, I., 1998. AirPhoto – a WinNT/Win95 program for geometric processing of archaeological air photos. AARGnews 16, 37-38.

Ştefan, A-S., 1983. Cercetări aerofotografice în anni 1978-1980. Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice – a XV-a sesiune anuală de rapoarte, Muzeul Judeţean Braşov – 1981, 15, 178-192.

Stoertz, C., 1997. Ancient landscapes of the Yorkshire Wolds, RCHME, Swindon.

Stoertz, C., 2013. Anniversary Reflections from a Founder Member. AARGnews 47, 8-12.

Ur, J. A. 2003. CORONA Satellite Photography and Ancient Road Networks: A Northern Mesopotamian Case Study. Antiquity 77, 102-115.

Ur, J. A. 2013. Spying on the Past: Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs and Near Eastern Landscapes. Near Eastern Archaeology 76, 28-36.

Webster, G. and Hobley, B., 1965. Aerial reconnaissance over the Warwickshire Avon. Archaeol J 121, 1-22

Wilson, D.R., 1982. Air Photo Interpretation for Archaeologists. Batsford, London.

A Beginner's Reading List

Introduction to Aerial Archaeology

      Written in English, this web site covers the basics of aerial survey and ALS ad shows uses of
      these in landscape archaeology.

       Especially chapter ‘Aerial Survey’, pages 80-93; the next edition should be published in 2019.

Photo Reading Examples

Informative Stuff

       Topics of interest may be found in the Capture, Interpret and Case Studies pages.

      AARGnews is open access to all issues in PDF form on this website

Using Archival Images


Use of Sattelite Images

UAVs or Drones

Papers and Abstracts

      Compiled by Irwin Scollar, Rog Palmer, Michael Doneus, John Haigh, Kevin MacLeod and Dave               Cowley

      Compiled by Irwin Scollar

      by Martin Fowler, in AARGnews33

      by Ulrich Kiesow (archaeoflug) – PDF Size: 800KB

      by R. Bewley and Ch. Musson. This project was only made possible with the support of the Culture
      2000 programme of the European Union

        England: a cropmark landscape in three dimensions, by Davy Strachan

        – an Annotated Bibliography

        Göteborg, Thursday, 24th September, 1998

        Irwin Scollar’s solutions to problems caused by different national map projections and their
        incorporation in Airphoto



        ArcLand International continues the work of the “ArchaeoLandscapes Europe” project. AARG is
        one of its founding members.

        5-year pan-European project within the Culture 2007-2013 Programme, starting in September

        Airborn Remote Sensing methods of Historic England

        The very active West Lothian Archaeology Group is specialized in kite aerial photography

Links to Aerial Photos

        The site is part of the publication of Cornwall’s NMP project. The site is rather more than a
        presentation of the results and looks at Cornwall’s archaeology from an aerial perspective

        Website by an aerial archaeology team from Wales, part-funded by the Welsh Assembly

       Documentary film on the history and current developments in European aerial archaeology

       This site contains loads of old aerial photographs from Persepolis

       This short film was made in summer 2008, specially for AARG 2008 conference. It’s about the
       Wings over Armenia project with its difficulties, fun and two foreign aerial archaeologists (Rog
       Palmer and Chris Musson) discovering a totally new country for them. The footage is mainly from
       2002. The film is edited by Anush Margaryan, with the help of Bars Media documentary film
       studio editorial staff

       Website site by Francesca Radcliffe with aerial photographs from the area of Dorset

Useful links to Archaeological Remote Sensing

       Free access to data concerning soil moisture, soil temperature and transpiration in Germany
       updated on a daily basis.

      The Copernicus Open Access Hub (previously known as Sentinels Scientific Data Hub) provides
     complete, free and open access to Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-5P user products

      A quick guide helps how to download from the USGS Earth Explorer

      For more information, see this link

       An open source book, available as PDF download (click on the titel) by Žiga Kokalj (ZRC – SAZU,
      Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts) and Ralf Hesse (State Office for
      Cultural Heritage Baden-Wuerttemberg). A detailed, indepth and very useful book which covers a
      multitude of LiDAR visualisations

      Tutorial (by Jošt Hobič) for processing LiDAR datasets and visualization (for Slovenian LiDAR data)

       List maintained by Jošt Hobič

Dronies' Corner

       An international, open access, peer reviewed journal. The journal focuses on design and
       applications of drones, including unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Unmanned Aircraft Systems
       (UAS), and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), etc. With an Issue (and Special Issues)
       coming out every 3 month, an insterdisciplinary variety of methods can be unfolded in a
       multitude of topics featured by each Issue

       Did you ever want to buy a camera drone but did not really know where to start looking? Then
       this post on My Drone Authority (run by Mark Sheenan) might be just a helpful jump in!

Worldwide Aerial Archaeology

This section should give examples of worldwide applications of aerial archaeology.

Aerial Archaeology in Wales

The flying programme

The Royal Commission’s flying programme has three main aspects: exploratory work, the photography of sites and landscapes of national importance, and recording of industrial or architectural subjects. Exploratory reconnaissance is used to discover and record ‘new’ sites, some of which may only be seen from the air. In late spring or summer the buried ditches of plough-levelled sites may cause patterns of lush growth or ‘cropmarks’ in ripening arable fields or pasture; at the same time, buried stonework of walls and roads can cause crops to whither and parch out leaving lighter lines. In both these ways, cropmarks can show the position and layout of otherwise invisible archaeological sites. Very faint earthwork remains, often found in upland regions, can be equally difficult to see on the ground. When these sites are photographed in low winter or spring sunlight the effects of light and shadow, at times combined with a dusting of frost or wind-blown snow, can help to pick out indistinct outlines with striking clarity. In very dry summers, when conditions are exceptional, many hundreds of ‘new’ cropmark sites can be discovered in the space of just a few months, showing the fundamental contribution aerial photography can make to our understanding of the archaeology of Wales. 

In liaison with Cadw, the Royal Commission also overflies Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) to monitor and photograph their condition. The flying programme continues to respond to changing research and conservation priorities and in recent years aerial photography has been employed to record for posterity the rapidly-changing urban and industrial landscapes of Wales. The Royal Commission actively co-ordinates and funds the work of aerial reconnaissance and air photo mapping by other bodies in Wales. 

Contact : 
Toby Driver, Air Survey Officer. 

Air Photo Mapping and Record Creation programme

Air photography of archaeological sites in Wales can only be a first step towards fully identifying, recording and eventually managing the archaeological heritage of Wales. Many parts of Wales, particularly in the upland zone, still await basic archaeological survey to identify and record their archaeological heritage. In recent years, field projects such as the Royal Commission’s Uplands Initiative, begun in 1991, have sought to redress this balance. However, since 1995 a programme of digital air photo mapping and record creation in Wales has also begun to make a significant impact on the study of upland and plough-levelled lowland archaeological landscapes in the country. By the year 2000, air photo mapping had been completed for 551.75 sq kms of Wales or 2.67% of the total landmass, while mapping of cropmark evidence alone has been completed for a further 1,118 sq kms or 5.41% of Wales. 

The air photo mapping programme in Wales has a remit to rapidly record all redundant features of the built landscape from earliest times until the end of the Second World War, mapping and recording all sites for a 25 sq. km area in about 10 days. Crucially, the programme in Wales has always been computer-based and provides a digital plan of each and every site for use in research and management work. 

Since 1995 our programme of air photo mapping has developed enormously in terms of technology and technique, from the days of FastCAD and FastMAP GIS between 1995 and 1998, to the change over to ArcView GIS in 1999. The Bradford Aerial 5 programme and AutoCAD are used for rectification in the flat plane (for scanned images and vector plots respectively) which, with careful checking, gives us the accuracy levels we require for 1:10,000 first-level mapping; to within 5m on level terrain and between 5-15m in undulating or hilly terrain. Sites plots are drawn up in ArcView GIS. Records are created on-screen writing to a FoxPro database. Once incorporated into a GIS and viewed against other datasets, such as site databases and priority areas for Upland Survey, the air photo map becomes a powerful tool for managing the archaeological heritage over wide areas. 

David Thomas, Air Photo Mapping Officer.

The Stour Valley Project, England: a cropmark landscape in three dimensions


The river Stour forms the boundary between counties of Essex and Suffolk in south-east England (Fig. 1). It flows along a band of alluvium, terraced valley gravels and glacial sands and gravels, in an area that is predominately Boulder Clay with pockets of underlying London Clay. The dense concentration of cropmark sites along the river valley was regularly flown from the 1950’s on by the Cambridge University Committee for Aerial Photography (CUCAP); the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England (RCHME); and the Archaeology Section of Essex County Council. The latter included survey carried out in the exceptional conditions in 1995-6, which not only discovered new sites, but also afforded important additional detail at a number of important sites (Strachan 1996 and 1997).

The area was re-mapped between 1997-8 (Strachan and Ingle 1998 and 1999) by the Essex Mapping Project (Ingle and Strachan 1994) as part of the National Mapping Programme (Bewley 1995 and 1998), revising the existing 1:10,560 cropmark plots maintained by the SMRS. This process illustrated the extent and diversity of cropmark sites along the flood-plain, and in particular, the prehistoric “Monument Complexes” consisting of ring-ditch cemeteries (including large dual concentric examples); elongated enclosures (interpreted as long mortuary enclosures and long barrows); and the two cursus monuments at Wormingford and Stratford St. Mary. This current project arises from the preparation of a regional research framework for the eastern counties (Glazebrook 1997) and has been funded by English Heritage (EH) as part of the implementation of the Monuments at Risk Survey. The first stage builds on the work described above and involves the large-scale mapping of the cropmark landscape, and the use of a digital terrain model (DTM) within a GIS environment, as the basis for study and interpretation. This summary describes the methodology employed by the project, and it is hoped that results will appear in a forthcoming AARGnews. 


Air Photographic Sources

Air photographic collections held by the Essex Heritage Conservation Record (EHCR) and the SMR at Suffolk County Council were the primary sources used for image rectification. These collections contain a variety of sources including images by CUCAP, local flyers, RCHME survey and Essex County Council (Fig. 2). The CUCAP specialist oblique collection was also consulted, in addition to black and white Aerofilms vertical runs, at a scale of 1:12,000 (dating from June 1960 and September 1990) which are held by the Essex County Council Information Resource Centre.

Image rectification, interpretation and mapping

Selected images were scanned at a resolution of 300 dpi and imported into Aerial 5.5 software (Haigh 1996) for rectification based on OS land-line data accessed via the Essex County Council Arcview GIS. The residual error for rectification was kept below 5m, allowing future work, such as geophysics or excavation to be added to the GIS and confidently correlated with identified cropmark features. When insufficient control data existed on photography for a site, the NMP plot (accurate to less than 10m) was imported into GIS and used. The resulting rectified images were then geo-referenced and imported into the GIS, to be viewed with OS land-line data and allowing mapping of identified features (Fig. 3).

The cropmark landscape consists of three main elements: circular, sub-circular and elongated enclosures (both rectilinear and curvilinear); the rectilinear landscape; and areas of local drift geology and palaeo-channels. These features were mapped on screen at a scale of 1:500, producing three polygonal vector layers (“Monument Complexes”, the “Rectilinear Landscape” and “Geology”) which can be viewed independently or in combination. In addition to these, a number of other data sets, from a variety of sources, have been added to the GIS. These include 1:25,000 drift geology data (partly made available by Wessex Archaeology) and find-spot information from the SMRs (divided by period: Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age). A total of 334 individual sites were recorded in the “Monuments Complex” class.

Viewing sites in the landscape and view-shed analysis

The resulting plots and associated data sets can be viewed at a variety of scales (ranging from individual sites at e.g. 1:1,250 to distributions at around 1:200,000). A site, or group of sites, can therefore be viewed against geology and find-spots, and in relation to other sites and topography (in the form of the 5m contours). In addition, however, the 5m contour data can be used to create a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN), or surfaced elevation model, on which the data can be draped. The 3D Analyst and Spatial Analyst extensions of Arcview allow the inter-visibility of monuments to be studied by selecting a position on, or above the DTM, and carrying out “line of sight” (LOS) or view-shed analysis. The former determines what is visible on a surface, looking in a certain direction from a single point, while the latter shows areas on a surface visible from one or more observation points. View-shed analysis is generally more useful as an aid to studying an archaeological landscape as it reveals other sites which share visibility with the observation point. The process results in a “flood diagram” which shows areas visible from that position and areas which are obscured by terrain (Fig. 5). Cumulative view-shed analysis (CVA) can be carried out using a number of different positions, or sites, to create a model of inter-visibility. While the model does not take into account vegetation cover, it is a valuable tool for the analysis of the relationship between sites and their topographical setting. The principles and methodology for CVA have been described in a study of the inter-visiblility of long barrows in the Stonehenge and Avebury areas (Wheatley 1995). The technique requires only a suitable DTM and the location of sites in the landscape, and can therefore be easily applied, and is likely to produce archaeologically significant, and often unexpected, results. Complex studies can be quickly carried out over large areas and on contours where it would be difficult to judge inter-visibility by contour lines alone. It is also invaluable in areas where modern development may obscure visibility and remove the possibility of checking visibility on the ground.

In addition, TINs can be viewed used as the basis for 3D visualisation, and viewed in three dimensions, along with the cropmark plots and other data, in perspective from a selected static 3D position, or in rotation (Fig. 6). This feature is useful for viewing sites in their topographical setting, and the software allows for vertical exaggeration of the DTM (which can reveal topographical subtleties) and control over the suns azimuth and altitude. In addition, when viewed from ground level, the models display the spatial organisation of monument complexes within their topographical setting. The potential for this technique as an aid to landscape interpretation is evident, but is more likely to be significant when combined with a morphological study of the sites mapped. The project has involved simple morphological analysis of sites within the “Monument Complexes” class, allowing distributions and cumulative view-shed analysis to be carried out on selected site-types. It is hoped to include details of this process, along with results, in a future AARGnews and the AARG web-site. 

Bewley, R. 1995 “A National Mapping Programme for England.” In Luftbildarchäologie in Ost- and Mitteleuropa. Forschungen zur Archäologie im Land Brandenburg, 3, pp 83-92. Potsdam. 

Bewley, R. 1998 “England’s National Mapping Programme: A Lincolnshire Perspective.” In Lincolnshire’s Archaeology from the Air (ed.) Bewley, R. (1998) Occasional Paper in Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 11. pp 9-17. Gainsborough. 

Edis, J., MacLeod, D. and Bewley, R. 1989 “An archaeologist’s guide to classification of cropmarks and soilmarks.” Antiquity 63, pp 112-26. 

Fassbinder, J. and Irlinger, W. 1999 Archaeological Prospection. Third International Conference on Archaeological prospection. Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege, Band 108. 

Glazebrook, J. 1997 Research and Archaeology: A framework for the Eastern Counties 1. Resource Assessment E. Anglian Archaeol. Occ. Pap. 3. 

Haigh, J.G.B. 1996 “Another member of the AERIAL software family.” AARGnews 12, newsletter of the Aerial Archaeology Research Group. 

Ingle, C. and Strachan, D. 1994 National Mapping Project 1993. in “Work of the E.C.C. Archaeology Section” (ed.) Bennett, A. Essex Archaeology and History 25, pp 233-8. 

Strachan, D. 1996 Aerial Survey in 1995. In “Work of the E.C.C. Archaeology Section” (ed.) Bennett, A Essex Archaeology and History 27, 

Strachan, D. 1997 Aerial Survey in 1996. In “Work of the E.C.C. Archaeology Section” (ed.) Bennett, A Essex Archaeology and History 28, 

Strachan, D. and Ingle, C. 1998 Essex Mapping Project 1997. in “Work of the E.C.C. Archaeology Section” (ed.) Bennett, A. Essex Archaeology and History 29, pp 186-8. 

Strachan, D. and Ingle, C. 1999 Essex Mapping Project 1998. in “Work of the E.C.C. Archaeology Section” (ed.) Bennett, A. Essex Archaeology and History 30. 

Wheatley, D. 1995 “Cumulative viewshed analysis: a GIS-based method for investigating intervisibility, and its archaeological application.” in (ed.’s) Lock and Stancic Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems: A European Perspective. London.

Aerial Archaeology in Essex

While both CUCAP and the RCHME have carried out reconnaissance in order to record upstanding architectural monuments and cropmark sites over Essex, a number of local archaeologists, notably Ida McMaster and Captain R. H. Farrands, have also flown for this purpose. In addition, in the 1970s, the then county archaeologist J. Hedges began to carry out occasional sorties in order to record cropmarks and excavations. This led to the establishment of a coherent programme of annual reconnaissance in the 1980s. Many of the photographs reproduced here result from aerial survey, partly funded by the RCHME, carried out by the Archaeology Section of Essex County Council. Copies of all of these photographs, and many others, are held in the county Sites and Monuments Record (SMR), a public record which is maintained by the Archaeology Section of the County Council.

The Archaeology Section of the County Council is currently carrying out the Essex Mapping Project, which is part of the RCHME’s National Mapping Programme. The project, which in Essex began 1993 and is funded by the RCHME, has the basic aim of mapping, at a scale of 1:10,000, archaeological and historical information visible on aerial photographs. Cropmarks, soilmarks and earthworks are mapped using set conventions, from both available vertical and specialist oblique photographs from a number of sources. Information about the morphological nature of mapped features is then compiled onto a computer database which will allow sites with similar characteristics and topographical setting to be extracted and their distributions plotted. By comparing excavated sites with groups of similar sites identified by the database, it is hoped that archaeologists will be able to make more informed interpretations about the nature of the sites which appear on photographs.

The development of satellite imagery over the last few decades, indicates the enormous technological leaps which have occurred since the early balloon photography carried out only a hundred and fifty years ago. It also attests, however, the continued desire to witness the earth from the aerial perspective, allowing us not only the ability to record the current state of affairs, but to monitor change over time.

In recent years, pioneering work in Essex has helped to develop the use of aerial photography along the coast, and in particular, on the extensive inter-tidal mud-flats. Flying along the coast at low tide, timber fish-weirs, oyster pits, shipwrecks, and hulks of other boats have been recorded in this way. Many of these areas are extremely inaccessible, and aerial photography allows archaeologists to rapidly cover large areas and locate structures which they can then visit on foot.

The appearance of cropmarks are particularly important in Essex for a number of reasons. Almost all of the remains of prehistoric human activity have been levelled by later agriculture, unlike upland areas of Britain, where prehistoric burial mounds and forts survive as earthworks which can be viewed on the ground. Indeed, with around 50% of the total land-use of the county dedicated to arable cultivation, it is clear why the occurrence of cropmarks is important to archaeologists in Essex. The geology of the county also plays an important role, however, as the gravels and sands which are common along the river valleys and coastal plains, are self-draining. This results in moisture in the topsoil draining away through the gravel, unlike heavier soils, such as clay, where moisture is more likely to be retained. The greater differences between the moisture content of the archaeological features and the surrounding soil results in more defined cropmarks. In particular, Tendring district, the Thames terraces and the Chelmer valley are very productive in terms of cropmarks, although in conditions of extreme drought, the boulder clay areas also produce cropmarks which most years never form. Indeed, it is possible that if the current trend of climatic change continues, tending towards longer, drier summers, the heavier clay areas may begin to produce significant numbers of previously unrecorded sites.

Over the last fifty years, the recording of cropmark sites has radically altered our understanding of the extent and complexity of archaeological landscapes in many parts of the country. Many new sites, however, continue to be discovered on an annual basis. Archaeologists must record these sites whenever possible as their appearance lasts only until the crop is fully ripened. While many sites may reappear year after year, some will appear only in the driest conditions, and then may lie under a non-cereal crop which may not produce a cropmark. In addition, continual ploughing, and modern deep ploughing in particular, can erode the buried archaeological sites which cause the cropmarks to form. It is important, therefore, that archaeologists continue to record sites from the air, not only in order to discover new sites, but also because it presents a rapid and efficient method of monitoring land-use changes and other developments which may threaten archaeology.

Mapping and Interpretation

Once archaeological features have been recorded on aerial photographs, they must be mapped in order to understand their relative shape and size. The position, shape and size of cropmarks are plotted onto modern base maps by comparing the position of objects, such as buildings and field boundaries, which appear both on a photograph and the relevant map. This is especially necessary with oblique photographs which are taken at an angle from the aircraft. The perspective distortion of features on such photographs requires rectification in order to appreciate a site’s actual shape. The resulting cropmark plots can be studied either on a site specific, detailed level (i.e. at a scale of 1:2,500), or by viewing a number of sites over a larger area of land (around 1:10,000 or more). This allows comparisons to be made between individual sites and provides information about the position of sites relative to each other, and the natural landscape.

Often cropmarks represent the remains of several periods of history which are built over each other and subsequently levelled by ploughing. In these instances, it is necessary for the interpreter to identify individual elements which are contemporary, usually on the basis of form and orientation. It is then possible to suggest how use of the landscape has developed over time, without excavation. Cropmark interpretation can often call upon other sources of information, such as old maps, place-names or records of artefact finds, which may suggest or support the interpretation of what a particular cropmark might represent.

The study of the shape and size, or morphology, of cropmarks is used in order to suggest the date and function of cropmark sites with particular shared characteristics. The many different shapes and sizes of enclosures which appear as cropmarks, for example, can be studied and similar groups can then be compared with examples which have been excavated and which archaeologists understand. It can then be assumed that enclosures of similar size, shape and with a similar position in the landscape, might have a similar function and be of similar date. The distribution of these enclosures can then be studied in relation to rivers, soils and other archaeological sites in the area. While cropmark plots can be seen as maps of prehistoric, Roman and medieval activity, to aid the study of the archaeology of the county, they are also used to inform archaeologists when sites are threatened by modern developments such as roads and housing.

Bayliss, T. and Owens, S. (ed)1990 Britain’s Changing Environment From The Air, Cambridge University Press.

Bewley, R. 1994 Prehistoric Settlements, Batsford, London.

Glasscock, R. (ed.) 1992 Historic Landscapes of Britain From The Air, Cambridge University Press.

Riley, D. 1982 Aerial Archaeology in Britain, Shire Archaeology, Princes Risborough.

Strachan, D. 1998 Essex from the Air, Essex County Council, Chelmsford.

Wilson, D. 1982 Air Photo Interpretation for Archaeologists, Batsford, London.

Davy Strachan, Essex County Council, Planning Department, County Hall, Chelmsford, Essex, U.K.

The above text and photographs are taken from “Essex from the Air”, by Davy Strachan, which was published in 1998 by Essex County Council. This full-colour, 110 page, book features photographs taken by the Essex County Council, the RAF, Cambridge University and the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. The book is available (at £15 including postage and packaging) from Roger Massey-Ryan, Essex County Council, Planning Department, Archaeology Section, County Hall, CM1 1LF (tel: 00 44 1245 437633). Payments in Sterling, please, Eurocheques are acceptable.

Aerial Archaeology in Poland

The Development of Archaeological Aerial Photography in Poland – an annotated Bibliography by P.M. Barford (Compilation date: 2000, AARGnews 20, 55-56.)

Following the success of the 1998 aerial archaeology school in Leszno (AARG News 17), it seems that if adequate funding can be secured, aerial photography will find an increasingly more secure place among the field techniques routinely used by Polish archaeologists. It would be wrong however to see the recent events in complete isolation from the previous development of this type of work. The Polish traditions of aerial archaeology seem to have had their beginnings in the Poznan school more than 50 years ago, despite this they developed in slightly different ways from the English. The present bibliography is a preliminary attempt to order the available literature in a way which may make the information a little more available to those whose Polish has become rusty. It is arranged in chronological order. This list is intended as an aid to anyone attempting in the future compilation of a history of aerial archaeology in Europe. A first version of this list was prepared for the Leszno school, and I would like to thank Wlodek Raczkowski for his help in tracking-down some of these refences.

The impetus for the early use of aerial techniques seems to have come in part from western literature reaching Poland in the period after the 1920s. The first Polish archaeological aerial photographs seems to have been those taken at the request of Jozef Kostrzewski of Poznan by an airforce pilot over the Neolithic coastal site at Rzucewo in 1929 (these fuzzy photos were unpublished, and were nearly lost in the War). For most of the period before the War, the technique of aerial photography was used mainly by Polish archaeologists for illustrative purposes, it was used since 1935 for the recording of excavations from a tethered balloon (Biskupin, Klecko) – the technique seems to have been based on the balloons used at Megidddo, Palestine (published in Antiquity in 1932). The second use was for recording major earthwork sites such as the Early Medieval strongholds of Great Poland. 

1. K. Jazdzewski 1938, Lotnictwo na uslugach prehistorii, Z Otchlani Wiekow XIII, (3-4), 33-41[‘aviation au service de la prehistoire].

2. J. Kostrzewski 1938, Osada bagienna w Biskupinie, w pow. zninskim, Przeglad Archeologiczny 5 (2/3), pp. 121-140. p. 121 and pl I-II [early aerial photographs of Biskupin]. See also: J.Kostrzewski 1938, ‘Biskupin: an early iron age village in Western Poland’, Antiquity 12, pp. 311-317.

3. Z. Rajewski 1938, Sprawozdanie z organizacji badan w latach 1936 i 1937, [w:] Rajewski (ed.) Grod Praslowianski w Biskupinie, Poznan pp 1-14 pl. I-IV and XII [excavation report of Biskupin illustrated with aerial shots – the high quality photographs taken at this time were used in many subsequent publications, the technique was used at Biskupin itself up to 1947].

4. W. Hensel 1939, Grod wczesnodziejowy w Klecku w pow. gnieznienskim, Wiadomosci Archeologiczne XVI pp. 265-303, pl 43 and 44. [excavation report illustrated with aerial shots].

5. W. Kocka [in:] J.Kostrzewski (ed.) Gniezno w zaraniu dziejow (od VIII do XIII wieku) w swietle wykopalisk, Poznan. Pl XIII. [Excavation report illustrated with aerial shots]

6. Z. Rajewski 1938, Sprawozdanie z organizacji prac w Biskupinie w pow. zninskim w latach 1938-1939, [w:] III Sprawozdanie z prac wykopaliskowych w grodzie kultury luzyckiej w Biskupinie w pow. zninskim’, Poznan, pp 1-11. [excavation report illustrated with aerial shots].

7. W. Kowalenko 1938, Grody i osadnictwo grodowe wielkopolski wczesnohistorycznej (od VII do XIII wieku), Poznan figs 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21-2 and 30. [This pioneering work on the strongholds of early medieval Great Poland is extensively illustrated with oblique aerial views taken from aeroplanes. Unfortunately the slow films used and the consequent shutter speeds and large apertures coupled with the low altitudes have led in some cases to somewhat blurred images. The publication is however an innovative one from several points of view].

8. This pre-War work at Poznan was not followed-up to a great degree by archaeologists in the People’s Republic of Poland. Part of the reason may well be the paranoid Cold War attitudes which made a state secret out of even basic topographic information (was this however the only cause?). There was still some useful work done. Much of this was concentrated on the recording of upstanding earthwork sites (particularly strongholds) and such views – usually commissioned from military sources – occur in textbooks and regional surveys (they are not listed here). Many of these however have the character of ‘decoration’ rather than being included as a source of any specific information (they are however more easily “readable” than the contour-plans favoured instead of hachures by the Polish field archaeologist).

9. Z. Rajewski 1955, O metodzie terenowych badan wczesnosredniowiecznych wiejskich zespolow osadniczych, Wiadomosci Archeologiczne XXVI zes. 3-4 pp 281-7 [mentions the use of aerial photography in the discussion of the techniques of settlement archaeology].

10. M. Kowianska-Piaszykowa 1957, Wyniki badan archeologicznych kurhanu III kultury unietyckiej w Lekach Malych w pow. koscianskim, Fontes Archaeologici Posnaniensis 7, pp. 116-133 [aerial observation failed to detect ploughed-out barrows in this cemetery. Later work has revealed them however].

11. Z. Rajewski 1960, Helikoptery w badaniach archeologicznych, Wiadomosci Archeologiczne 26, ss. 281-7 [the use of military helicopters in archaeological investigations. In 1958 Rajewski secured the co-operation of the Ministry of Defence to carry out photographic missions over the Medieval battlefields at Grunwald and Legnica and many Early Medieval strongholds in Mazovia, Kujawy and Lower Silesia. Similar work was carried out by Poznan museum].

12. Z. Rajewski 1960, Helikoptery w sluzbie archeologii, Z Otchlani Wiekow 26, 23 [helicopters in the service of archaeology].

13. K. Bielenin, 1962, Sprawozdanie z badan nad starozytnym hutnictwem swietokrzyskim w 1960 i 1961 r., Materialy Archeologiczne (Cracow), 4, pp. 353-358 [between 1960 and 1967, aerial observation was used to locate many hundred iron-smelting sites and associated settlements, over 1500 photos were taken ].

14. Z. Rajewski 1962, Zdjecia z helikopterow grodzisk polskich, Wiadomosci Archeologiczne 28, 299 [Aerial photographs of Polish strongholds from… helicopters. The emphasis on helicopters which developed in this period probably resulted in part from the previous use of tethered balloons which could move up and down].

15. W. Szafranski 1963, Pologne, ss. 121-123 [w:] R. Chevallier (red.) 1963 Archeologie Aerienne et techniques complementaires inventaire et sauvetage du patrimonie historique, Paris [Poland shows its work at an international exhibition in Paris].

16. Z. Rajewski 1964, Aereofotograficzna dokumentacja obiektow archeologicznych na wystawie miedzynarodowej w Lizbonie w 1964 r., Wiadomosci Archeologiczne 30, 518 [International exhibition in Lisbon].

17. Z. Rajewski 1964, Fotografowanie obiektow archeologicznych z balonu, Z Otchlani Wiekow 30, 84-86 [photographing archaeological sites from balloons].

18. Z. Rajewski 1965, Aereophotografie prise d’un ballon, Archeologia Polona VIII, 125-130.

19. J. Miszalski 1966, Srodowisko geograficzne grodu wczesnosredniowiecznego w Chodliku w swietle interpretacji zdjec lotniczych’, Fotointerpretacja w Geografii 3 [Aerial photography used to reconstruct geographical envirionment of early Medieval stronghold. These photographs later appeared in several textbooks].

20. J. Ostoja-Zagorski 1969, Mozliwosci wykorzystania fotointerpretacji w badaniach archeologicznych, Fotointerpretacja w Geografii 7, pp. 93-8 [possibilities of using aerial photography in archaeology].

21. J. Matusik, J. Miszalski 1969, Stanowiska archeologiczne w dolinie Utraty pod Bloniem, Fotointerpretacja w Geografii 7, pp 67-74 [aerial photography used for archaeological purposes near Warsaw].

22. H. Andrulewicz 1973, Dokumentacja fotograficzna z lotu ptaka dla miast historycznych w Polsce, Ochrona Zabytkow XXVI, pp. 108-116 [aerial photography used for documentation in historic towns; starting from about 1966 aerial photography has been used for documentation of architectural monuments and their complexes forming integral componennts of the cultural landscapes of Poland]. 

23. Z. Rajewski 1975, Aerofotografia w badaniach terenowych w Polsce, Wiadomosci Archeologiczne 39 (iv), 560-566 [Aerial photography in field survey, documentation, but also location of new sites to understand settlement complexes; Article written earlier, published posthumously].

24. J. Ostoja-Zagorski 1980, Perspektywy wykorzystania fotointerpretacji zdjec lotniczych w prehistorycznych badaniach osadniczych, Sprawozdania Archeologiczne XXXII pp. 291-3 [potential of photointerpretation for studies on prehistoric settlement patterns].

25. I. Modrzewska-Marciniak 1980, Wykorzystanie nowych technik fotografii lotniczej do celow archeologicznych’ Informator techniki wojsk lotniczych Nr 57 (Warszawa) pp. 75-92 [use of new aerial photographic techniques for archaeological purposes].

26. W. Zin 1980, Principles of the Realisation of the Archaeological Field Record of Poland document issued [in Polish] on 15th Feb 1980 by Prof. dr Wiktor Zin, vice-minister of Culture and Arts, and Conservator-General [this is a programme of systematic search for and recording of archaeological sites across the whole country. In this document aerial searching is established as one of the methods of survey to be applied].

27. I. Modrzewska-Marciniak, D. Monna, and J. Przenioslo 1981, Prospezioni archeologico-geografische italo-polache eseguite in Italia nei ultima anni, Le Origini di Venezia (Venice) pp. 99-105.

28. H. Jankuhn 1983, Wprowadzenie do archeologii osadnictwa, Warsaw. [Translation of Jankuhn’s “Einfuhrung in der Siedlungsarchaologie” (1977), aerial archaeology dealt with on pp. 27-8].

29. I. Modrzewska-Marciniak 1983, Wilanow. Wstepne opracowanie wynikow badan z zastosowaniem fotointerpretacji w archeologii, Dokumentacja teledetekcyjna (Prace Uniwersytetu Slaskiego 575, Katowice), pp. 208-11 [analysis of the aerial photographs of site near Warsaw]

30. J. Gassowski 1983, Archeologia z powietrza, pp. 175-215 [w]”Z archeologia za pan brat”, Warszawa. Aerial archaeology gets generous treatment in this – one of the few popularisations of archaeological method in Polish archaeology, though concetrates mostly on spectacular foreign examples, to the detriment of Polish experience, omitted from the bibliography. One useful feature of this book is that it returns to the theme of cropmarks, shadow marks and soilmarks. Aerial archaeology is here treated not just as a means of documenting known upstanding sites but discovering ploughed-out ones. Gassowski suggests the use of helium-filled airships as a quieter option than an aeroplane].

31. L. Duel, 1984, Lot w przeszlosc, Warszawa. Translation of Duel’s ‘Flights into yesterday’ (1969) London.

32. I. Modrzewska-Marciniak 1984, Proba analizy fotografii lotniczych wybranych stanowisk archeologicznych, Archeologia Polski XXIX, pp. 267-289 [attempted analysis of the aerial photographs of selected sites].

33. A. Ciolkosz, J. Miszalski, R.J. Oledzki 1986, ‘Interpretacja zdjec lotniczych’, Warszawa [one of the few civilian textbooks on photointerpretation. The book discusses archaeological photointerpretation on pp. 368-375].

34. J. Mialdun, J. 1987, Analiza przydatnosci zdjec lotniczych w badaniach archeologicznych na przykladzie obiektow Wybicko i Janow Pomorski na Zulawach Wislanych, [w:] Materialy V Sesji Naukowo-Technicznej, Olsztyn, ss. 233-246 [one of a series of articles on the aerial photography of sites in northeastern Poland].

35. A. Kijowski, A. Wyrwa 1989, Fotointerpretacja i weryfikacja archeologiczna zdjec lotniczych ze stanowiska nr 3 w Leknie’ [in:] A. Wyrwa (ed.) Studia i materialy do dziejow Paluk vol. I, pp. 121-135 [a rather long chapter on some rather fuzzy photographs of an architectural complex and the interpretation of some adjacent ‘cropmarks’]

36. J. Ostoja-Zagorski 1989, Interpretacja zdjec lotniczych w archeologicznych badaniach osadniczych, pp. 52-54 [in:] Sinkiewicz M. (ed.) Materialy XIII ogolnopolskiej konferencji fotointerpretacji (Torun 21-23 wrzesnia 1989 r.). Torun [the use of aerial photography for settlement studies].

37. J. Mialdun, W. Skrobot 1990, Archeologiczny aspekt pradoliny górnej Drwecy w swietle zdjec lotniczych, Przeglad Geodezyjny 12, pp. 12-14 [geomorphological work for archaeological purposes].

38. M. Jagodzinski, M. Kasprzyczka 1990, Zarys problematyki badawczej wczesnosredniowiecznej osady rzemiesliczo-handlowej w Janowie Pomorskim (gmina Elblag), Pomerania Antiqua XIV, 9-51 [Aerial photointerpretation was used (pp. 26-36) to reconstruct the palaeotopography and hydrography of this production and trade site, probably Early Medieval Truso].

39. J. Mialdun 1991, Wybrane zagadnienia archeologii lotniczej na Zulawach Wislanych, ss. 177-183 [w:] Archeologia Baltycka. Materialy z Konferencji, Olsztyn 24-25 IV 1988 r., Olsztyn [selected problems of aerial archaeology in the Vistula delta region].

40. H. Andrulewicz 1991, Wnioski z analizy wynikow zdjec lotniczych wykonanych przez ODZ w latach 1966-1990, oraz wnioski dotyczace zadan i potrzeb konserwatorskiego programu dokumentacji lotniczej dla zabytkowych struktur i ukladow przestrzeni historycznych w Polsce (synteza), [in:] Synteza kulturowych wartosci przestrzeni Panstwa Polskiego 4, pp. 50-58 [a synthesis of an extensive internal report in ODZ on the use of aerial photography for the study of historical cultural landscapes].

41.  K. Bielenin 1992, Starozytne gornictwo i hutnictwo zelaza w Gorach Swietokrzyskich, Kielce 1992, 38-40 [between 1960 and 1967, aerial observation was used to locate many hundred iron-smelting sites and associated settlements, over 1500 photos were taken – the methodology is described and relationship to other forms of information-gathering].

42. J. Mialdun, B. Swiatek B. 1993, Zdjecia lotnicze jako zrodlo danych o obiektach archeologicznych na Zulawach Wislanych, ss. 75-88 [w:] Zeszyty Naukowe AR-T Olsztyn nr 23 [one of a series of articles on aerial archaeology in the Vistula delta region].

43. B. Zurawski 1993, Low altitude aerial photography in archaeological fieldwork: the case of Nubia, Archaeologia Polona XXXI, 243-256. [here the Polish balloon experience is amalgamated with Near Eastern techniques. The vehicle for the camera in the windy Nubian desert is a kite].

44.  Z. Jablonski, M. Sinkiewicz. 1993, Klucz fotointerpretacyjny wybranych elementow srodowiska kulturowego srodkowej czesci Polski polnocnej, Torun. [photointerpretation in cultural heritage, focussing on selected elements of the cultural landscape]

45.  J. Mialdun 1995, O mozliwosciach wykorzystania fotointerpretacji w badaniu stanowisk archeologicznych zwiazanych ze srodowiskiem wodnym, ss. 115-140 [w:] Archeologia podwodna jezior nizu polskiego Torun . [the possibilities o archaeological aerial photography of underwater sites in lakes and other bodies of water].

46.  W. Raczkowski. 1995, Aerial archaeology and the study of settlement systems some examples from Middle Pomerania (Poland), Forschungen zur Archaologie im Land Brandenburg 3, pp. 265-270 [the use of aerial photographs in settlement archaeology].

47. W. Raczkowski 1996, Aerial reconnaissance and fieldwalking survey: British and Polish reality, AARGNews 12, 16-17 [contrasts current approaches to SMRs in England and Poland and their use in heritage management].

48. W. Gorgolewski, E. Tomczak 1998, Grodziska Gornego Slaska i Zaglebia Dabrowskiego z lotu ptaka, Katowice [a series of picture-postcard type views of strongholds in southern Poland, not always visible due to thick trees, but a useful collection and documents the state of preservation of some monuments].

49. Z. Kobylinski 1997, Archeologia z lotu ptaka, Archeologia Zywa nr 3 (4), 41–43 [a short popular article setting out the main aims of the aerial work of the state service for the protection of monuments].

50. AARGNews 17: (C. Stoerz, Chairman’s piece, pp. 3-4; P. Barford 1998, Reflections on the Leszno Aerial Archaeology School, pp. 29-30 etc.) [discuss the AARG training school in Poland].

51. W. Stepien, 1998, Karta obserwacji terenu z gory, pp. 53-57 [in:] Zeszyty Generalnego Konserwatora Zabytkow Archeologia zeszyt 1. Warsaw [a projected record card for the documentation of archaeological aerial photographs].

52. W. Raczkowski 1998, Ikara czy Dedala przypadek?: zdjecia lotnicze w archeologii Pomorza, [w:] Acta Archeologica Pomeranica vol. I: XII Konferencja Pomorzoznawcza, pod red. M. Dworaczyk, P. Krajewski, E. Wilgocki, Szczecin: Stowarzyszenie Naukowe Archeologow Polskich, ss. 145-156 [aerial photography in Pomerania, discusses similarities and differences between the type of sites found by aerial survey in this area and other regions of Europe, and the uses of aerial photography].

53. W. Smigielski (ed.) 1998, Nauki przyrodnicze i fotografia lotnicza w archeologii, Poznan [book of collected papers on the natural sciences and aerial photography in archaeology; includes: papers on the significance of aerial photography for geomorphical interpretation of the environs of sites (B. Nowaczyk), in the interpretation of settlement processes (Ostoja-Zagorski), methodology of aerial photography (B. Okupny), Polish work in Nubia (B. Zurawski), use in the protection of the heritage (W. Stepien)].

54. J.Nowakowski, A.Prinke, W.Raczkowski 1999, Latac czy nie latac?: zdjecia lotnicze jako kolejny element standardowej procedury w ochronie stanowisk archeologicznych, [w:] Acta Archaeologica Pomoranica, vol. II: Konserwatorskie badania archeologiczne w Polsce i w Niemczech – stan prawny, problematyka, osiagniecia, pod red. M.Dworaczyk, K.Kowalski, A.Porzezinski, S.Slowinski, E.Wilgocki, Szczecin: Stowarzyszenie Naukowe Archeologow Polskich, ss. 113-152 [potential of aerial photographs in protecting and managing archaeological monuments in Poland with Polish examples]

55. W.Raczkowski 1999, Power of image: some ideas on post-processual aerial archaeology, AARGnews 19, ss. 10-14

56. B. Zurawski, From Jebel Moya to Old Dongola. 80 years of aerial archaeology in Sudan, Forschungen zur Archaologie im Land Brandenburg 3, pp. 305-315.

A survey of this literature reveals several trends which may be worth stressing. In the beginning, the stationary bird’s eye view was used (a) primarily as a means of gaining an overview of excavated sites. In the first part of the post-War period, however aerial photography was used (b) primarily to record the topography of and around known sites and (c) to document complexes of historic architecture (much of this work was done for the conservation services). Towards the middle of the 1960s however we see (d) a shift to the use of aerial photointerpretation for aiding the understanding of the geographical environment of known sites (geomorphology, hydrography, geology of the surrounding areas), the work was frequently done by specialists in photointerpretation. It is only in the 1980s that we see (e) a developing interest in aerial survey as a means of discovering new archaeological sites as both a research and heritage managment tool. Despite this, we see a continuation of previous trends (i.e., (b), (c), (d)).

Although as we have seen the technique was in theory well-known to the Polish archaeologist, a repeated theme which one notes is an apologetic approach of many of these articles, as if the authors are trying to convince other archaeologists of the potential usefulness (and presumably cost-effectiveness) of aerial observation in their research. In part this has been due to the problems of raising adequate funds from institutional sources in Poland for the development of the technique and in part to the dissimilarities between the way cropmark/soilmark sites may appear in the Polish lowlands compared with the ‘classic’ areas of archaeological aerial observation in western Europe.

Institutional funding has in recent years been forthcoming mainly from the Ministry of Culture through the conservation services especially through the Centre for the Documentation of Monuments (ODZ) and the Office of the Conservator-General (GKZ). Recent personnel changes within some of these organizations have again placed the scale of the future funding of aerial photography in Poland under some doubt. So far very little aerial survey seems to have been financed by the Academy of Sciences, Committee of Scientific Investigations, or the universities.

The soils of most regions of Poland seem not to produce the same types of clear cropmarks as in England, Bavaria and other areas beloved by the archaeological aerial observer. In some regions, the most that can be expected are somewhat amorphous discolourations of rather uncertain interpretation (although as reported in a previous issue of AARGNews, the Leszno school recorded some cropmarks of high clarity and definition). The problem seems however not to have a straightforward relationship to soil type and humidity, several other factors seem to be involved, including subsoil site preservation (W. Raczkowski pers. comm.). While experience allows relatively reliable interpretation of the more amorphous ‘blobs’ as archaeological sites, to those with less experience in such matters these photographs remain unconvincing that the technique is applicable to Polish conditions. In particular the former reluctance to finance the inclusion of archaeological aerial observation and photography in the range of techniques to be applied in the Environmental Impact Surveys preceding the construction of the Polish motorways is to be especially regretted. This reluctance seems to stem from a lack of conviction about the cost-effectiveness of this technique. As a result valuable information will probably be lost if ground survey during construction does not locate sites which probably would appear as cropmarks (and if these losses are to be prevented, the developer may experience costly delays in the course of construction).

Aerial Photographs of New Zealand Archaeology​

New Zealand has some 6,000 earthwork fortifications, the product of widespread warfare in the pre-European period from about A.D. 1500 to A.D. 1800. In addition, Maori quickly adopted and developed aspects of gun warfare in the nineteenth century: as many as 600 fortified sites were built or adapted from pre-European types. The Maori word for these fortifications is “pa” (pronounced as in “Ma and Pa”). A typical fortification consists of an elevated section of a ridge with ditches at either end. Ditches may extend around the sides, and there may be more than one ditch. Another form is a headland or end of a ridge with a ditch or ditches across the narrowest access point. There are also many sites with storage pits, terraced housefloors and horticultural plot boundaries that show well from the air. The aerial photographs in this compendium are low oblique (near vertical) or vertical images taken by Kevin L. Jones. Copyright©1997 Kevin L. Jones/New Zealand Department of Conservation is asserted.

For further information, contact Kevin Jones at Department of Conservation, PO Box 10 420, Wellington, New Zealand or refer to: 

Kevin L. Jones. Nga Tohuwhenua mai Te Rangi: A New Zealand Archaeology in Aerial Photographs. Wellington, Victoria University Press, 1994. ISBN 0 86473 268 6. For a review of New Zealand archaeological aerial photographs, see: Kevin L. Jones. The development of aerial photography in New Zealand archaeology. Aerial Archaeology Research Group News 13 (1996): 7-13 and 14 (1997): 13-22 (in two parts). For New Zealand archaeology in general see: Davidson, Janet M. The Prehistory of New Zealand. Auckland, Longman Paul, 1984. ISBN 0 582 71793 0 (This book is maintained in print.)

AARG Constitution


Constitution of The Aerial Archaeology Research Group

Approved at the Annual General Meeting of 26 September 1990 and approved with revisions at the Annual General Meeting of 25 September 2007, 25 September 2009, 16 September 2010 and 26 September 2013

1 Name

1.1 The name of the Association shall be ‘The Aerial Archaeology Research Group’.

2 Object

2.1 The object of the Group shall be to advance the education of the public in archaeology (including the man-made landscape and the built-environment) through the promotion of high standards of research, application and communication in the fields of air-photography and other methods of remote sensing. The Group’s principal area of operation shall be Europe, but its remit is worldwide and it will actively seek to broaden its activities and membership as appropriate.

2.2 In furtherance of this object, but not further or otherwise, the Group may:

a. arrange within each year, on its own or with others, at least one major meeting on the subject of aerial archaeology and related studies, open both to members and to non-members;

b. arrange, on its own or with others, such additional meetings, exhibitions, courses, training schemes or other functions as it may deem appropriate;

c. encourage interchange between its members, and between its members and other individuals or sections of society, on the subject of aerial archaeology and related studies;

d. publish or assist in the publication of periodicals, pamphlets, leaflets, newsletters and similar material relating to aerial archaeology;

e. encourage the dissemination of information about aerial archaeology in newspapers, journals and other publications, and through radio, television and other media;

f. provide, where appropriate, advice and recommendations on matters involving aerial archaeology and related applications of remote sensing;

g. establish and maintain liaison with appropriate individuals and institutions at local, national and international level;

h. raise funds and invite or receive contributions from any person, persons or institution by way of subscription, donation, loan or otherwise, provided that the Group shall not undertake any permanent trading activity in the raising of funds for the said object;

i. do all such other things as shall further the object of the Group.

3 Membership

3.1 Membership of the Group shall be open to individuals or institutions interested in furthering the object of the Group, participating in its activities or receiving the benefit of its services. Applications for membership shall be made to the Honorary Secretary on a form provided by the Group. No person or institution shall be deemed a member until such application has been approved by the General Committee, which shall have absolute discretion to refuse membership to any person or institution without giving reason therefore; membership shall not be refused, however, without just cause.

3.2 Membership shall be in three classes, as follows:

a. Ordinary Membership, open to individuals; Ordinary Members shall be entitled to receive single copies of all communications relating to the meetings and activities of the Group, along with single copies of any general-issue publications (including the Group’s journal, if any) and the right to exercise a single vote at General Meetings;

b. Institutional Membership, open to groups or institutions; Institutional Members shall be entitled to receive a copy of all communications relating to the meetings and activities of the Group, along with single copies of any general-issue publications (including the Group’s journal, if any) for library use and the right to exercise through a nominated representative a single vote at General Meetings;

c. Honorary Membership, which may be conferred by vote of the membership in General Meeting on individuals or institutions in recognition of distinguished service in the fields of aerial archaeology or related applications of remote sensing, as a means of fostering wider communication or interchange (especially at international level), or for such other reason as the membership may from time to time deem appropriate; Honorary Members, whether individuals or institutions, shall enjoy the same rights as Ordinary or Institutional Members respectively.

4 Officers and General Committee

4.1 Subject to resolution by the membership in General Meeting, the affairs of the Group shall be conducted by a General Committee consisting of a Chairman, Vice-chairman, Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, along with such additional or co-opted members or officers (whether voting or non-voting) as may be determined from time to time by the General Committee or the membership in General Meeting.

4.2 The Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Group or General Committee at which he/she is present. In the absence of the Chairman this responsibility shall fall to the Vice-Chairman or, in his/her absence, to such other member as those present shall decide for that meeting and that meeting alone. The Chairman shall, in consultation with the Honorary Secretary and other officers, draw up the annual report of the General Committee for presentation to the Annual General Meeting.

4.3 The Vice-Chairman shall for the purposes of continuity normally be the immediate past-Chairman. In the event of the immediate past-Chairman being unwilling or unable to serve, or being unacceptable to the membership by vote at the Annual General Meeting, the Vice-Chairman shall be another individual member of the Group elected at the Annual General Meeting or, in the absence of such election, appointed by the General Committee in the manner described in 5.3 below.

4.4 The Honorary Secretary shall make arrangements for General Meetings of the Group and for meetings of the General Committee and any sub-committees, for the circulation of information to members, and for the Group’s communications with outside individuals and institutions. The Honorary Secretary shall take minutes of the proceedings of all meetings at which he/she is present, and shall enter them promptly in a minute book which shall be available for inspection by any member on written application to the Honorary Secretary or Chairman. In the absence of the Honorary Secretary minutes shall be taken by a substitute appointed from the members present, by the chairman of the meeting, and shall be communicated promptly to the Honorary Secretary for inclusion in the minute book. The Honorary Secretary shall maintain an up-to-date register of the members of the Group and of their classes of membership.

4.5 The General Committee, through a nominated officer, shall receive on account and for the use of the Group all sums of money due to, donated to or on loan to the Group. The nominated officer shall keep a regular account of all receipts and payments and of the funds, assets and liabilities of the Group and shall prepare annual accounts as specified in 8.3 below.

4.6 The General Committee, through an appropriate officer, shall have charge of the preparation, production and distribution of the Group’s official publications, including its annual or occasional journal, if any. The officer concerned may be assisted by one or more assistants and/or by an Editorial Board selected by the General Committee from the membership of the Group.

4.7 A Meetings Secretary will be co-opted by the General Committee to be responsible for the arrangement of facilities, information and bookings for conferences and for other meetings of the Group not dealt with by the Honorary Secretary.

4.8 The General Committee shall meet at least twice during its term of office; a quorum shall consist of three members, including either the Chairman or Honorary Secretary. Decisions in General Committee shall be by simple majority of those present and voting, the chairman of the meeting holding a second and deciding vote.

4.9 The General Committee may appoint individual members, sub-committees or working parties to take charge of particular events or to deal with specific aspects of the Group’s affairs. Such individuals, subcommittees or working parties shall be responsible to the General Committee or to an individual officer acting on its behalf, and appointments shall be deemed to lapse once the activity or aspect of the Group’s affairs has been dealt with to the satisfaction of the General Committee.

5 Election and replacement of officers

5.1 The officers of the Group shall be elected by ballot at an Annual General Meeting. Nominations shall be sent to the Honorary Secretary, with the permission of the Nominee and the support of a Proposer and Seconder (who shall be individual or institutional members of the Group), not less than 30 days before the meeting. Forms bearing the names of the candidates and the names and signatures of single proposers and seconders (who shall be individual or institutional members of the Group) shall be returned to the Honorary Secretary not less than 30 days before the meeting, along with the written agreement of the candidate to stand for office.

5.2 The term of office for elected officers shall usually be three years, though it may be shorter. Officers may be re-elected following a three-year term, but this shall be for a single year and only on the recommendation of the full General Committee. After a period in office, the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Honorary Secretary and Treasurer shall not be eligible for re-election to the same post until the General Meeting next following that at which they retire from office. Posts co-opted by the General Committee shall hold office at the discretion of the elected officers of the General Committee.

5.3 Should any office become vacant by death, resignation or other reason the General Committee shall have power to fill the office by ad hoc appointment from the Ordinary Membership of the Group until the next Annual General Meeting.

6 General Meetings

6.1 The Annual General Meeting shall normally be held within the months of September to November each year, and in any case at intervals of not less than 9 months nor greater than 15 months. The Meeting may be held in association with other activities promoted by or supported by the Group, so long as this is considered appropriate by the General Committee. The business of the meeting shall be to approve the minutes of the previous Annual Meeting, to receive the annual report of the General Committee, to examine the audited accounts for the previous 12 months, to elect officers for the following year, to set subscription levels, to appoint one or more auditors and to consider any Special Resolution or Resolutions duly proposed and notified to the membership as specified in 6.3 below. Not less than 30 days written notice shall be given to all members of the place and agenda for the meeting. A quorum shall consist of one quarter of the current membership, including at least two officers. In the event of a quorum not being present the membership shall be informed and given at least 14 days written notice of the time, place and agenda for a re-convened meeting, at which two officers and the members present shall constitute a quorum.

6.2 Ordinary General Meetings may be held at the discretion of the General Committee, members being given at least 30 days written notice of the time, place and agenda for the meeting. A quorum shall consist of one quarter of the current membership, including at least two officers.

6.3 Special Meetings may be requisitioned at any time by the Chairman, the General Committee, the membership in General Meeting, or by any five individual members or representatives on written application to the Honorary Secretary. The meeting shall be convened within 60 days of such requisition, all members being given at least 30 days written notice of the time, place and agenda for the meeting. No business shall be considered at such a meeting other than that for which it was convened; one sixth of the current membership, including at least two officers, shall constitute a quorum.

6.4 With the exception of changes to the constitution or dissolution of the Group, as provided in 6.5 and 10.1 below, decisions and elections at General Meetings shall be by simple majority, the chairman of the meeting holding a second and deciding vote. Institutions may be represented by persons who are not individual members of the Group, but no person shall exercise a vote both as an individual member and as an institutional representative on the same resolution. Ballot papers for members unable to attend a General Meeting to vote on elections of Officer Bearers or other matters, will be available on application to the Honorary Secretary from 30 days before the date of the meeting, to be returned to the Honorary Secretary no later than 7 days before the General Meeting.

6.5 Amendments or additions to the constitution may only be made by Special Resolution at an Annual General Meeting as specified in 6.1 above, or at a Special Meeting convened as specified in 6.3 above; such amendments or additions shall require a majority of two thirds of the members or representatives present and voting. No motion passed at such a meeting shall be valid if it would have the effect of causing the Group to cease to qualify for charitable status at law.

7 Income and property

7.1 The income and property of the Group shall be applied solely to its stated object and no portion thereof shall be paid or transferred directly or indirectly by way of dividend or otherwise by way of profit to any member of the Group. Officers or members engaged on official duties on behalf of the Group may, however, be paid reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, provided that such payments are reported to the next Annual General Meeting as part of the audited accounts of the Group.

7.2 The Group may acquire assets or equipment relevant to its stated object and administrative needs; acquisitions and disposals, including the initial cost and the written-down value, shall be reported to the next annual General Meeting as part of the audited accounts of the Group.

8 Preparation, auditing and presentation of accounts

8.1 The financial year of the Group shall begin on the first day of January each year. True accounts shall be kept by the Treasurer of all sums of money received or expended by or on behalf of the Group, with details of their purpose, and of the property, credits and liabilities of the Group. The accounts shall be open to inspection by any member on written application to the Honorary Secretary or Chairman.

8.2 At the end of each financial year, and at any other time decided by the General Committee, the accounts of the Group shall be examined and the correctness of the balance sheet ascertained by one or more auditors appointed by the General Committee. The auditor or auditors shall have access at all reasonable times to the accounts of the Group. The remuneration, if any, of the auditor or auditors shall be decided by the General Committee.

8.3 At the end of each financial year the Treasurer shall prepare a statement of income and expenditure for the year and a balance sheet including the current assets and liabilities of the Group for presentation along with a statement from the auditor or auditors to the Annual General Meeting.

9 Annual subscriptions

9.1 Every member shall pay on acceptance into membership and on the first day of January in each subsequent year such sum of money as may be determined from time to time by the membership in General Meeting for each class of membership of the Group.

9.2 Members whose subscriptions are in arrears two months after the due date shall be sent a reminder and will be removed from the circulation list for official communications and services until payment has been received.

10 Dissolution of the Group

10.1 The Group shall not be dissolved except at a Special Meeting convened for this purpose. Any motion of dissolution must be passed by a two-thirds majority of the members or representatives present of voting.

10.2 In the event of dissolution the funds and property of the Group remaining after the payment of all debts and liabilities shall not be distributed directly or indirectly amongst the members of the Group but shall be transferred to such institution or institutions having similar objects to that of the Group as the Special Meeting shall approve by simple majority, provided that such institution or institutions themselves prohibit the distribution of income and property to an extent at least as great as that in 7.1 of this constitution.